Variable (1)
Control (n=14)
(2)
HIV-infected OLD-negative (n=36)
(3)
HIV-infected RTI-positive (n=28)
p-value post-hoc p-value Difference 95% CI
Male gender, n (%) 8 (57%) 20 (55%) 19 (68%) 0.591      
Age [yrs], median (95% CI, range) 31(25.6 to 36.4, 20-52) 28.5(25.5 to 31.5, 23-54) 29.5(25.9 to 33.1, 20-56) 0.626      
Smokers, n (%) 7(50%) 23(64%) 23(82%) 0.091      
Cough/Sputum/Dyspnea/Chest X-ray/Past RTI, n 0 / 0 / 0 / 0 / 0 0 / 0 / 0 / 0 / 0 15 / 19 / 6 / 11 / 12        
Hemoglobin [g/dL], mean (95% CI, range) 14.5(13.8 to 15.3, 12.3-16.5) 14.3(13.9 to 14.7, 11.4-16.7) 14.9(14.4 to 15.5, 11.0-17.2) 0.183      
White blood cells count [×103 cells/µL], geometric mean (95% CI, range) 6.61 (5.82 to 7.50, 5.10-11.0) 4.75 (4.25 to 5.30, 2.01-8.72) 5.83 (5.24 to 6.49, 4.03-11.40) <0.0013 0.0024 1 vs. 2 0.0204 2 vs. 3 0.72 1.23 (0.58 to 0.89) (1.03 to 1.47)
PMNs count [×103 cells/µL], median (95% CI, range) 4.30(3.65 to 4.95, 3.80-8.90) 3.14(2.53 to 3.75, 1.06-7.66) 3.58(2.76 to 4.40, 1.91-8.98) 0.0036 0.0017 1 vs. 2 -1.45 (-2.24 to -0.59)
Lymphocyte count [×103 cells/µL], mean (95% CI, range) 1.79(1.55 to 2.04, 1.30-2.30) 1.49(1.30 to 1.68, 0.31-2.46) 1.86(1.60 to 2.12, 0.26-3.30) 0.0393 0.0434 2 vs. 3 0.37 (0.02 to 0.72)
CD4 count [cells/µL], mean (95% CI, range) N/A 361.6(287.1 to 436.0, 6-1063) 391.7(320.8 to 462.6, 90-822) 0.565      
HIV-infection duration [yrs], median (95% CI, range) N/A 4.2(1.9 to 6.5, 0.2-12.0) 2.1(0.7 to 3.6, 0.1-9.2) 0.0038   -1.8 (-3.3 to -0.7)
Viral load assays, n (%) N/A 28(78%) 10(36%) 0.0012      
Detectable viral loada, n(%) N/A 19(68%) 6(60%) 0.712      
Viral load [×103 RNA copies/mL], geometric mean (95% CI, range) N/A 1.08(0.26 to 4.42, 0-935) 1.33(0.07 to 23.71, 0-41.9) 0.885      
Treatment with HAART, n (%) N/A 23(64%) 7(25%) 0.0032   -39%  
Treatment duration [mths], geometric mean (95% CI, range) N/A 17.4(10.9 to 28.0, 1-84) 7.9(1.7 to 36.0, 1-62.5) 0.155      
History of AIDSb, n (%) N/A 14(39%) 5(18%) 0.102      
p-values: 1Pearson’s chi-squared test; 2Fisher’s exact test; 3one-way ANOVA; 4post hoc ANOVA test with Bonferroni adjustment; 5unpaired Student’s t-test (equal variances); 6Kruskal-Wallis rank test; 7Wilcoxon rank-sum test with Bonferroni adjustment; 8Wilcoxon rank-sum test.
HAART, highly active anti-retroviral therapy; PMNs, polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
aDetectable viral load defined as ≥50 copies of HIV-1 RNA/mL. bAIDS defined as a history of CD4 count <200 cells/μL or AIDS-defining illness.
Table 1: Comparison of demographic and clinical variables between healthy controls vs. HIV-infected patients without clinical signs and symptoms of opportunistic lung disease (OLD-negative) or with clinical signs and symptoms of concomitant respiratory tract infection without a definite diagnosis of OLD (RTI-positive).
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