Variable (1)
Control (n=14)
(2)
HIV-infected OLD-negative (n=36)
(3)
HIV-infected RTI-positive (n=28)
p-value post-hoc p-value Difference 95% CI
Exhaled breath H2O2 [µmol/L], geometric mean (95% CI, range) 0.21 (0.15 to 0.31, 0.05-0.63) 0.80 (0.67 to 0.95, 0.30-2.20) 0.90 (0.75 to 1.09, 0.31-2.20) <0.0011 <0.0012 1 vs. 2 <0.0012 1 vs. 3 1.002 2 vs. 3 3.76 4.24 (2.53 to 5.58) (2.81 to 6.40)
Resting CL [mV/104 cells], geometric mean (95% CI, range) 0.59 (0.50 to 0.70, 0.28-0.84) 0.84 (0.74 to 0.95, 0.48-1.35) 0.71 (0.61 to 0.83, 0.35-1.28) 0.0081 0.0062 1 vs. 2 0.0422 1 vs. 3 1.002 2 vs. 3 1.46 1.36 (1.10 to 1.94) (1.02 to 1.83)
fMLP-induced peak CL [mV/104 cells], geometric mean (95% CI, range) 0.92 (0.74 to 1.13, 0.42-2.24) 1.49 (1.30 to 1.71, 0.62-2.97) 1.67 (1.34 to 2.09, 0.63-4.71) <0.0011 0.0042 1 vs. 2 <0.0012 1 vs. 3 0.982 2 vs. 3 1.63 1.83 (1.20 to 2.19) (1.27 to 2.63)
Adjusted variables for significant difference on PMNs count:
Exhaled breath H2O2 [µmol/L], geometric mean (95% CI) N/A N/A N/A N/A3      
Resting CL [mV/104 cells], geometric mean (95% CI) 0.71(0.63 to 0.81) 0.75(0.70 to 0.81) 0.81(0.75 to 0.88) 0.184      
peak CL [mV/104 cells], geometric mean (95% CI) 1.03(0.82 to 1.31) 1.40(1.21 to 1.62) 1.71(1.45 to 2.00) 0.0044 0.0035 1 vs. 3 1.65 (1.17 to 2.33)
p-values: 1one-way ANOVA; 2post hoc ANOVA test with Bonferroni adjustment; 3one-way ANCOVA (assumptions not met); 4one-way ANCOVA (assumptions met); 5post hoc ANCOVA test with Bonferroni adjustment.
CL, whole blood chemiluminescence; fMLP, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine; N/A, not applicable; PMNs, polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Table 2: Comparison of exhaled H2O2 and whole blood chemiluminescence between healthy controls vs. HIV-infected patients without clinical signs and symptoms of opportunistic lung disease (OLD-negative) or with clinical signs and symptoms of concomitant respiratory tract infection without a definite diagnosis of OLD (RTI-positive).
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