Characteristica,b Fatty Liver Disease N=28 (13.27%) No Fatty Liver Disease 183 (86.73%) OR (95% CI) p-value
Variable of Interest        
Adiponectin, per 1.0 µg/ml increase 2.8 (1.9-3.5) 3.1 (2.3-4.4) 0.7 (0.5, 1.0) 0.06
Demographics        
Age, per 10 years 45 (40-50) 43 (34-50) 1.3 (0.8, 1.9) 0.24
Ethnicity       0.2
Black 2 (4.3%) 45 (95.7%) 0.2 (0.04, 0.9)  
Hispanic 4 (13.3%) 26 (86.7%) 0.7 (0.2, 2.3)  
Other 3 (11.1%) 24 (88.9%) 0.6 (0.1, 2.1)  
White 19 (17.8%) 88 (82.2%) 1.0  
Clinical Information        
Hypertension        
No 17 (11.4%) 132 (88.6%) 1.0  
Yes 11 (17.7%) 51 (82.3%) 1.7 (0.7, 3.8) 0.22
Diabetes        
No 25 (12.6%) 173 (87.4%) 1.0  
Yes 3 (23.1%) 10 (76.9%) 2.1 (0.5, 8.0) 0.29
Tobacco Use       0.48
 Never 12 (11.4%) 93 (88.6%) 1.0  
 Past 9 (12.9%) 61 (87.1%) 1.1 (0.4, 2.9)  
Current 7 (19.4%) 29 (80.6%) 1.9 (0.7, 5.2)  
HIV-specific Information        
Duration HIV infection (years) 11 (6-22) 11 (5-19) 1.0 (0.9, 1.0) 0.61
CD4 count (cells/mm3),per 100 cells 601.5 (394-766) 578 (384-713) 1.0 (0.9, 1.2) 0.56
Nadir CD4 (cells/mm3), per 100 cells 252.50 (95-368) 260 (144-356) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 0.73
HIV RNA level (copies/ml)        
<50 19 (13.0%) 127 (87.0%) 1.0  
≥50 9 (13.9%) 56 (86.1%) 1.1 (0.4, 2.5) 0.87
Current HAART Use        
No 5 (13.5%) 32 (86.5%) 1.0  
Yes 23 (13.2%) 151 (86.8%) 1.0 (0.3, 2.8) 0.96
Total months NRTI use, per 12 months 89.1 (17-157.1) 74.3 (17.3-145.4) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 0.68
Total months protease 36 (0-78.1) 23.40 (0-71) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 0.33
inhibitor use, per 12 months        
Ritonavir        
None 10 (9.3%) 97 (90.7%) 1.0  
Past or Current Use 18 (17.3%) 86 (82.7%) 2.0 (0.9, 4.6) 0.09
Laboratory Results        
ESR , per 10 mm/hr 11 (10-17) 10 (7-19) 1.1 (0.9, 1.4) 0.37
hsCRP level (mg/dL) 0.2 (0.1-0.4) 0.1 (0.1-0.3) 0.8 (0.4, 1.9) 0.69
Total cholesterol,  per 10 mg/dL 200.5 (162-238) 183 (157-204) 1.1 (1.0, 1.2) 0.17
HDL, per 10 mg/dL 36 (31-43) 40 (35-50) 0.6 (0.4, 0.9) 0.02
LDL , per 10 mg/dLc 104 (76-132) 101 (87-129) 1.0 (0.9, 1.2) 0.46
Triglyceride level, per 100 mg/dL 188 (145-399) 135 (87-235) 1.4 (1.1, 1.7) 0.002
Fasting glucose, per 10 mg/dLc 97 (92-105) 91 (85-98) 1.3 (1.0, 1.5) 0.01
Weight and Fat Measurements        
BMI (kg/m2) 30 (27-32) 26 (24-29) 1.2 (1.1, 1.3) <0.0001
Waist circumference (cm) 104 (95-107) 92 (84-98) 1.1 (1.0, 1.1) <0.0001
Percent body fatc 28 (24-33) 26 (23-29) 1.1 (1.0, 1.1) 0.01
Physician Visual Assessment        
Lipohypertrophy 20 (19.6%) 82 (80.4%) 3.1 (1.3, 7.3) 0.01
Lipoatrophy 10 (12.5%) 01 (87.5%) 0.9 (0.4, 2.0) 0.75
a Categorical variables expressed as number (percentage) and continuous variables as median (interquartile range) other weight and body measurements were not included due to collinearity
b Variables FRS, family history of CAD, and all other ART medications were removed from the table due to lack of significance with FLD;
cAll values are n=211, except LDL (n=198), glucose (n=210) and percent body fat (n=212) due to missing values
BMI, body-mass index; CI, 95% confidence interval; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; hsCRP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NRTI, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor; OR, odds ratio
Table 3: Study Population Characteristics and Univariate Associations with Fatty Liver Disease among HIV-infected Men
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