Study Period Site  Criteria for failure N Median Duration of ART (months) ART Regimen (%) ≥1 DRM
(%)
NNRTI
(%)
M184V
(%)
Any TAM
(%)
TAM ≥3
(%)
K65R
(%)
Ref
Dec 2010 – Mar 2012 Hlabisa
(17 rural clinics)
1 ×  VL >1000 222 42 d4T/3TC/EFV (51) d4T/3TC/NVP (24)
AZT/3TC/EFV (8)
TDF/3TC/EFV (11)
Other (6)
86.0 83.0 78.0 40.0 18.0 6.0 Manasa et al.
[34]
Sep 2010 to Mar 2011 Urban clinic 1 × VL >1000 33 5.7 TDF/3TC/EFV (89) >97.0 97.0 27.3 15.2 NR 70.0 Sunpath et
al. [33]
NR Durban
(urban hospital)
1 ×  VL >5000 43 29 d4T/3TC/EFV (51)
AZT/3TC/EFV (29) AZT/3TC/NVP (9)
Other (10)
95.0 95.0 87.0 55.0 NR NR Singh et al.
[32]
Aug 2004 to Aug 2006 Urban Clinics 1 ×  VL >1000
141
NR D4T/3TC/EFV (43)
D4T/3TC/NVP (6)
AZT/3TC/EFV (27)
AZT/3TC/NVP (12)
OTHER (11)
86.5 NR NR NR NR 5.0 Murphy et al.
[31]
Jan 2005 – Aug 2006 Durban
(two urban hospitals)
1 ×  VL >1000 115 10.8 d4T/3TC/EFV (49) d4T/3TC/NVP (5)
AZT/3TC/EFV (26)
AZT/3TC/NVP (11)
Other (8)
83.5 78.3 64.3 32.2 13.0 2.6 Marconi et al.
[30]
ART, antiretroviral therapy; N, number of patients genotyped; DRM, drug resistance mutation; TAM, thymidine analogue mutation; VL, viral load; NR, Not reported; NA, Not applicable; Ref- Reference.
Table 2: Summary of acquired drug resistance studies in adults treated with first-line antiretroviral therapy in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa.
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