Exposure variables Wives living with HIV n=165 (%)b Wives not living with HIV n=69 (%) OR (95% CI of OR) p-value
Paschim medinipur (district)
Purba Medinipur (district)
Kolkata (district)
51 (64)
50 (69)
64 (78)
29 (36)
22 (31)
18 (22)
0.49 (0.24 – 0.99)
0.63 (0.31 – 1.31)
Reference
0.05
0.23
Age (in year) of husband
≤25
>25 to ≤30
>30 to ≤35
>35 to ≤40
>40

2 (67)
23 (79)
42 (75)
50 (73)
48 (62)

  1 (33)
6 (21)
14 (25)
18 (27)
30 (38)

1.25 (0.1 - 14.3)
2.39 (0.87 - 6.56)
1.87 (0.87 - 4)
1.73 (0.85 - 3.51)
Reference

0.85
0.08
0.1
0.12
Hindu
Muslim
152 (70)
13 (81)
66 (30)
3 (19)
0.53 (0.14 – 1.92)
Reference
0.53
Husbands never attending school
Husbands attended school
29 (78)
136 (69)
8 (22)
61 (31)
1.62 (0.70 – 3.76)
Reference
0.26
Wives never attending school
Wives attended school
39 (80)
126 (68)
10 (20)
59 (32)
1.82 (0.85 – 3.90)
Reference
0.13
Duration of present marriage in years
<7
>=7 to <=14
>14 to <=22
>22
 
33 (83)
63 (72)
50 (66)
19 (61)

  7 (17)
24 (28)
26 (34)
12 (39)

2.97 (1.00 – 8.85)
1.65 (0.07 – 3.92)
1.21 (0.51 – 2.88)
Reference

0.05
0.25
0.66
No change in sexual relation with spouse after HIV test
Used condom/reduced frequency of sex with spouse
Stopped having sex with spouse
28 (78)
119 (73)
18 (53)
8 (22)
45 (27)
16 (47)
3.11 (1.1 –8.75)
2.35 (1.1 – 5)
Reference
0.03
0.03
Husband ever experienced genital ulcer (after marriage)
Husband never experienced genital ulcer
52 (75)
113 (68)
17 (25)
52 (32)
1.40 (0.74 – 2.66)
Reference
0.29
Wife ever experienced genital ulcer (after marriage)
Wife never experienced genital ulcer
43 (90)
122(66)
5 (10)
64 (34)
4.51(1.7 – 11.95)
Reference
0.002
Husband ever had discharge of pus with urine (after marriage)
Husband never had discharge of pus with urine
29 (83)
136 (68)
6 (17)
63 (32)
2.23 (0.88 – 5.66)
Reference
0.09
Wife ever had discharge of pus with urine (after marriage)
Wife never had discharge of pus with urine
6 (86)
159 (70)
1 (14)
68(30)
2.56 (0.3 – 21.7)
Reference
0.39
Wife ever experienced white vaginal discharge (after marriage)
Wife never experienced vaginal discharge                                         
128 (74)
37 (62)
46 (26)
23(38)
1.73 (0.93 – 3.21)
Reference
0.08
Warty growth in husband around genitalia/anus (after marriage )
Husband never had warty growth around genitalia/anus
83 (75)
82 (66)
27 (25)
42 (34)
1.57 (0.88 – 2.78)
Reference
0.12
Warty growth in wife around genitalia/anus (after marriage )
Wife never had warty growth around genitalia/anus
82 (79)
82 (64)
22 (21)
47 (36)
2.13 (1.18 – 3.86)
Reference
0.01
Husband experienced any STD symptom (after marriage)
Husband did not experience any STD symptom
98 (76)
67 (64)
31 (24)
38 (36)
1.79 (1.01 – 3.16)
Reference
0.04
Wife experienced any STD symptom (after marriage)
Wife did not experience any STD symptom
93 (79)
72 (52)
24 (21)
45 (38)
2.42 (1.35 – 4.33)
Reference
0.003
Couple sero-concordant for HSV-2 antibody
Couple sero-discordant for HSV-2 antibody
Both members of couple sero-nonreactive of HSV-2 antibody
85 (80)
16 (64)
64 (62)
24 (20)
9 (36)
39(38)
2.46 (1.32 – 4.59)
1.08 (0.43 – 2.68)
Reference
0.004
0.86
Wife diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis
Wife not diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis
46 (84)
119 (66)
9 (16)
60 (33)
2.57 (1.18 – 5.61)
Reference
0.03
Husband on ART
Husband not on ART
42 (71)
123 (70)
17 (29)
52 (30)
1.04 (0.54 - 2)
Reference
0.89
Husbands' first CD4 cell count (per cmm) at ART centre
≤200
>200 to ≤250
>250 to ≤350
>350
 
94 (71)
22 (67)
20 (69)
29 (72)

 38 (29)
11 (33)
9 (31)
11 (28)

0.93 (042 - 2.06)
0.75 (0.27 - 2.06)
0.84 (0.29 - 2.4)
Reference

0.87
0.58
0.75
Current viral load of husbands (copies/ml)
>100000
>50000 to ≤100000
>10000 to ≤50000
<10000
Undetectable
   
0.88 (0.31 - 2.48)
0.53 (0.14 - 2.01)
0.71 (0.24 - 2.05)
0.71 (0.36 - 1.31)
Reference

0.82
0.35
0.52
0.31
b= row percentage
OR= Odds Ratio
Table 2: Association of key risk factors with HIV infection in wives.
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