Characteristics Giang et al.* (25) (N=248) Kinh et al.† (26) (N=79) Kinh et al.† (27) (N=51) Lien et al.† (29) (N=119) Nhung et al.‡ (28) (N=54) Dean et al.§ (40) (N=68)
Sample year 2007 2008 2008 2006-2009 2008†† 2009
Location HCMC HCMC HCMC HCMC HCMC Multi-provinces**
Any drug resistance, N (%) 121 (49) NR 28 (55) 66 (55) 34 (50) 5 (7)
NRTI Any 116 (47) 69 (87) 25 (49) 65 (55) 33 (49) 5 (7)
Any of TAM 83 (33) NR NR 40 (34) 24 (35) 2 (3)
M184V/I 90 (36) NR NR 57 (48) 22 (32) 4 (6)
K65R 11 (4) NR NR 9 (8) 3 (4) 0 (0)
Q151M 9 (4) NR NR 11 (9) NR 0 (0)
NNRTI Any 107 (43) 62 (78) 28 (55) 63 (53) 25 (37) 4 (6)
K103N 44 (18) NR NR 20 (17) 4 (6) 1 (1)
Y181C/I/V 43 (17) NR NR 35 (29) 14 (21) 3 (4)
G190A/S 42 (17) NR NR 21 (18) 11 (16) 3 (4)
Y188L 13 (5) NR NR 12 (10) 2 (3) 0 (0)
Protease inhibitorPI Any major mutation 10 (4) 4 (5) 2 (4) 2 (2) 3 (4) 0 (0)
N, number of participants; HIVDR, HIV drug resistance; ART, antiretroviral therapy; NRTI, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NNRTI, Non- nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; PI, protease inhibitor; HCMC, Ho Chi Minh City; NR, not reported; TAMs is thymidine-analogue mutations, including M41L, D67N, K70R, L210W, T215Y/F, and K219Q/E. * Adults and children with clinical or immunological criteria of first-and second-line ART failure. † Adults with clinical or immunological criteria of first-line line ART failure. ‡ Children with clinical or immunological criteria of first-and second-line ART failure. § Adults receiving ART. ** The study was conducted in Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa, and Can Tho.
Table 3: The prevalence of acquired HIVDR and selected HIV resistant mutations among people on ART and with suspect of treatment failure in Vietnam, 2000-2009
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