Parameter‡

Parameter Estimate

SE

95% Confidence interval

P value

Asthma

1.75

.169

1.45-2.21

0.0001*

   No asthma†

1.0

_

1.0

_

Age

1.017

.0029

1.01-1.02

0.0001*

Female

1.06

.134

.83-1.36

0.624

   Male†

1.0

_

1.0

_

White

.375

.196

.133-1.05

0.06

Black

.372

.202

.127-1.08

0.07

Asian

.257

.142

.086-.765

0.015*

American Indian

.575

.381

.155-2.12

0.405

Multiple races

.933

.180

.767-1.494

0.063

    Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander†

1.0

_

1.0

_

Non-Hispanic

1.07

.181

.767-1.49

0.686

   Hispanic†

1.0

_

1.0

_

MSA

.956

.104

.772-1.18

.682

   Non-MSA†

1.0

_

1.0

_

South

1.14

.112

.942-1.38

0.172

West

0.883

.100

.706-1.105

0.280

Midwest

1.30

.222

.928-1.821

.126

  Northeast†

1.0

_

1.0

_

Poor

1.045

.188

.732-1.49

0.805

Lower income

.841

.154

.586-1.20

0.347

Middle income

.874

.173

.592-1.29

0.50

High income

.999

.200

.673-1.48

0.997

Near poor†

1.0

_

1.0

_

Private insured

.847

0.096

.677-1.06

0.147

Uninsured

.380

.068

.267-.542

.0001*

  Public insured†

1.0

_

1.0

_

Elementary

.726

.130

.510-1.03

.07

High school

1.11

.221

.759-1.651

.567

Grade 12

1.001

.200

.675-1.48

.994

1 year college

.81

.147

.566-1.15

0.247

2 year college

1.42

.385

.834-2.42

. 195

3 year

.966

.219

.618-1.51

.881

4 year college

.8522

.174

.570-1.27

.435

>5 year college

.970

.223

.617-1.525

.897

  No school†

1.0

_

1.0

_

CCI score

1.017

.0029

1.011-1.023

.0001*

†Referent category; ‡Results based on generalized linear model with log link Poisson distribution; *significant at alpha = 0.05
Table 2: Results of regression analysis to estimate the direct costs associated with asthma.
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