Parameter‡

Parameter Estimate

SE

95% Confidence interval

P value

Asthma

2.08

.401

1.43-3.04

0.0001*

   No asthma†

1.0

_

1.0

_

Age

1.007

.0043

.987-1.007

0.085

Female

0.973

.183

.671-1.42

0.887

   Male

1.0

_

1.0

_

White

.970

.447

.391-2.40

0.9483

Black

1.264

.589

.496-3.55

0.615

Asian

.478

.239

.178-1.281

0.142

American Indian

3.932

2.73

1.003-15.40

0.049*

Multiple races

1.41

0.709

.525-3.79

0.494

    Native Hawaiian/Pacific
Islander†

1.0

_

1.0

_

Non-Hispanic

1.484

.417

.854-2.75

0.161

   Hispanic†

1.0

_

1.0

_

MSA

1.355

.298

.878-2.09

0.208

   Non-MSA†

1.0

_

1.0

_

South

1.902

.460

1.18-3.06

0.008*

West

1.313

.359

.767-2.24

0.319

Midwest

1.22

.332

.715-2.08

0.462

  Northeast†

1.0

_

1.0

_

Poor

1.14

.357

.615-2.11

0.615

Lower income

.761

.275

.373-1.55

0.395

Middle income

.789

.275

.428-1.59

0.565

High income

.594

.234

.272-1.29

0.188

Near poor†

1.0

_

1.0

_

Private insured

0.605

0.132

.396-.934

0.023*

Uninsured

.576

0.167

.317-1.01

0.056

  Public insured†

1.0

_

1.0

_

Elementary

.419

.216

.152-1.15

0.094

High school

1.365

.830

.413-4.51

0.608

Grade 12

1.58

.802

.588-4.28

0.360

1 year college

.636

.298

.253-1.599

0.336

2 year college

.965

.426

.404-2.300

0.936

3 year

.479

.257

.166-1.377

0.172

4 year college

.759

.406

.264-2.17

0.608

>5 year college

1.59

.976

.475-5.31

0.450

  No school†

1.0

_

1.0

_

CCI score

1.28

0.047

1.18-1.36

.0001*

†referent category; ‡Results based on generalized linear model with log link Poisson distribution; *significant at alpha = 0.05
Table 4: Results of regression analysis to estimate the incremental indirect total costs associated with asthma.
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