Author Year Study Cases (n) Treatment Recovery Recovery Time (h) Notes
Baris 2011 CR 1 Papaverine Y 3  
Barkhordarian 2000 CR 1 Iloprost Y few hours  
Desmukh 1989 CR 1 P Y 20  
ElMaraghy 1998 S 6 P Y NR  
        NG Sensory loss NR  
        Nifedipine N 15.5 persisting sensory loss
        P Y    
        Nil Y 10  
        PG Y    
Fitzcharles 2005 S 2 nil Y   5 cases reported, but 3 intentional injection with epinephrine
Hardy 1995 CR 1 P Y    
Hinterberger 1994 CR 1 P Y 1  
Janssen 2008 CR 1 P Y 0.33  
Kaspersen 1998 CR 1 NG Y NR  
Khairalla 2001 CR 1 CCB/P Y NR  
Klemawesch 2009 CR 1 P/02 Y 48  
Lee 1998 S 2 NG Y 1  
McCauley 1991 CR 1 NG/P Y 0.3  
Mathez 2009 CR 1 NG + Vasodil Y 8 (2months)  
Molony 2006 CR 1 P Y 30  
Murali 1998 CR 1 P Y NA  
Nagaraj 2009 S 7 NG (patch) Y    
Patel 2013 CR 1 NG Y NA  
Pyeko 2013 CR 1 NG/T Y 0.33  
Schintler 2005 CR 1 nil Y    
Sellens 1999 CR 1 NG/P Y 0.1  
Sherman 2011 CR 1 NG Y 48  
Singh 2007 CR 1 W/NG/PG P Y    
Skorpinski 2006 S 2 NG Y 2.5  
        Nil Y 2  
Stier 1999 S 3 T Y 0.25  
        T Y 0.5  
        T/NG Y 1  
Turner 2004 CR 1 NG/P Y NA  
Velissariou 2004 S 3 NG Y 6  
        Nil Y NA  
        P Y 0.1  
Xu 2012 CR 1 P Y 0.2  
Yousif 2009 CR 1 P + NG Y 1  
Abbreviations: CR: Case Report; S: Series; NR: Not Reported; Treatment (P: Phentolamine; NG: Topical Nitroglycerin; T: Terbutaline; O2: Hyperbaric Oxygen; CCB: Calcium Channel Blocker; W: Warming). "+" indicates both treatments given but timing not statedeg P +NG indicates both treatments given but order not stated; "/"indicates sequential treatment eg NG/P indicates use of phentolamine after failure of reversal with topical nitroglycerin
Table 2: Case reports and case series information
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