Cause

N

% of sample endorsing item (agreeing/ strongly agreeing)

Pollen

293

93

Pollution in the environment

232

73

Hereditary - ‘it runs in my family’

136

43

Altered immunity

102

32

Chance or bad luck

60

19

Stress or worry†

51

16

Diet or eating habits

47

15

Smoking

43

14

My own behaviour†

43

14

My emotional state e.g. feeling down, lonely, anxious, empty†

30

9

A germ or virus

29

9

Overwork

22

7

Alcohol

19

6

Ageing

16

5

My mental attitude e.g. thinking about life negatively†

10

3

Poor medical care in my past

9

3

Family problems or worries caused my illness†

8

3

My personality†

5

2

Accident or injury

5

2

†Emotional casual attributions [38]
Table 3: Causal attributions of hay fever.
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