No

Parameter

Lower-than-normal levels may be associated with

References

1

ALT

reduced survival year in the elderly people, disorders in amino acid and carbonhydrate metabolism

Le Couteur, et al. 2010; Dugdale et al. 2009a; Venes et al. 2001; Shen et al. 1983

2

AST

disorders in amino acid and carbonhydrate metabolism and  necrosis or disease in these tissues

Dugdale et al. 2009b; Venes et al. 2001; Shen et al. 1983

3

Cys C

atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysms, kidney function and deteriorating cardiovascular diseases and brain disorders

Bertram & Jeon et al. 2011;  AACH & Taglieri et al. 2010; Shlipak & Roos et al. 2007

4

TG

hyperthyroidism, malabsorption syndrome, the form of lipoproteins, energy sources and transporters of dietary fat

Dugdale & Zieve 2010a; Merriam-Webster 2005; Venes et al. 2001

5

HDL-C

an increased risk of atherosclerotic heart disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes

American Heart Association 2011; Dugdale and Zieve 2010b; Venes et al. 2001

6

LPS

breakdown of fat into fatty acids, pancreas damage, familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency, a group of rare genetic disorders

Dugdale, Longstreth, Zieve 2009; Venes, Biderman, Adler, Fenton et al. 2001

Table 3: Potential human health risks associated with serum biochemical parameters.
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