Placebo Alcohol Two-way ANOVA P value
Parameters control 0.1% GTP       0.5% GTP control 0.1% GTP 0.5% GTP Alcohol GTP Alcohol GTP
Max force (N) 112.05 ± 2.56x 113.4 ± 2.5x 105.1 ± 2.4x 87.2 ± 3.2y 86.9 ± 2.5y 90.0 ± 2.5y   <0.001 0.568 0.064
Energy to max force (mJ) 26.7 ± 2.2B 27.7 ± 2.2B 25.4 ± 2.1B 21.6 ± 2.8A 34.6 ± 2.2A 35.7 ± 2.2A  0.044 0.013 0.009
Slope (N/mm) 260.0 ± 12.2x 263.0 ± 12.2x          254.3 ± 11.5x       184.1 ± 15.5y 168.7 ± 12.2y         179.8 ± 12.2y <0.001   0.872 0.663
Deflection (µm) 179.5 ± 4.1x 181.7 ± 4.1x   168.4 ± 3.8x 139.8 ± 5.2y 139.3 ± 4.1y 144.3 ± 4.1y   <0.001   0.568 0.064
Bending moment (N*mm) 179.5 ± 4.1x 181.7 ± 4.1x   168.4 ± 3.8x 139.8 ± 5.2y 139.3 ± 4.1y 144.3 ± 4.1y   <0.001   0.568 0.064
Stress (MPa) 45.8 ± 2.1 46.1 ± 2.1 44.0 ± 1.9   46.5 ± 2.6   46.0 ± 2.1 39.4 ± 2.1 0.451 0.063 0.415
Moment of inertia (mm3) 6.49 ± 0.40x 6.62 ± 0.40x          6.42 ± 0.38x 4.62 ± 0.51y 4.82 ± 0.40y 6.06 ± 0.40y <0.001   0.243 0.130
Strain 0.221 ± 0.015B      0.226 ± 0.015B    0.217 ± 0.014B    0.218 ± 0.019B    0.303 ± 0.015A    0.325 ± 0.015A      <0.001   0.007 0.005
Modulus of elasticity (Mpa) 208.2 ± 11.7A 207.1 ± 11.7A      208.0 ± 11.0A      216.1 ± 14.7A        155.2 ± 11.7B        126.2 ± 11.7B        <0.001   0.003 0.003
Alcohol reduced bone strength and GTP supplementation increased bone quality.
Table 5: Bone strength in placebo- and alcohol-treated rats supplemented with green tea polyphenols (GTP) in drinking water. Results are expressed as mean values ± standard error of mean (SEM). All dietary treatment groups were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Fisher’s protected least significant difference (Fisher’s LSD) post-hoc test to evaluate the effect of alcohol, GTP dose, or interaction. Within a row with different superscripts (x and y for alcohol effect; a and b for GTP; A, B and C for interaction) are significantly different by two-way ANOVA and Fisher’s LSD test (P<0.05). Max force, maximal force.
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