Figure 1: Major Immunodiagnostic technologies. (A) Conventional sandwich ELISA, (B) AlphaLISA [11], (C) Microfluidic ELISA-based Optimiser microplate [15], (D) SPR-based Biacore 4000 system, and (E) Smartphone-based integrated rapid-diagnostic-test reader [34]. Image in Figure 1(D) is the courtesy of GE Healthcare. Figure 1(B) is reproduced with permission from Nature Publishing Group, while Figure 1(C) and 1(E) are reproduced with permission from Royal Society of Chemistry.