Stimulatory cells Chondrogenic cell Culture system Cell ratio direct/ indirect Co-culture effect Reference
oaAC (human) MSC p7043L cell line (human) ML/insert with poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate) construct --- indirect ↑coll. II, aggrecan, PG, coll. content [17]
AC (human) MSC (human) (company: Lonza) hyaluronic hydrogel 1:4 direct ↑PG, coll. content, biomechanics ↓coll. X [51]
AC, NS chondrocytes (bovine, human) BMSC, ASC (human) pellet 1:3 direct indirect ↑PG, ↑type II collagen mRNA, ↑AC proliferation [26]
AC (human & bovine) BMSC, ASC, synovial SC (human) pellet 1:4, 1:1 direct ↑cartilage formation, PG, proliferation [25]
AC (equine) MSC (equine) pellet 1:1 direct ↑coll. II, aggrecan, SOX9 [56]
AC (human) BMSC (human) pellet 1:1, 1:2 direct indirect ↓calcification, coll. X/II ratio, IHH/coll. II ratio, ALP activity [57]
AC (hPi cell line, GFP labelled) BMSC (Kp-hMSC, human cell line) ML on both sites of insert membrane & pure ML 1:1 direct ↑coll II & I, SOX9, I-CAM1, ITGA1, -3, TGFβ2, -3, -R1, BMP4, -5, smad1, -4, IGF1, EGF, FGF2, FGFR2 [86]
AC (rabbit) BMSC (human) hydrogel alginate 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 direct ↑coll. II, PG ↓osteocalcin [122]
AC (bovine) osteogenic differentiated MSC (human & caprine) insert bilayered poly(ethylene glycol) gels (PEG) PEG on poly(lactic-co-glycolic) PLGA --- indirect direct (caprine) ↑PG, mineralisation (human) ↑coll. II, SOX9, coll. X [123]
AC (porcine) BMSC (porcine) PGA 1:1 direct ↑PG, biomechanics [65]
AC (porcine) BMSC (porcine) PLGA 1:4 direct ↑BMSC chondrogenic differentation [112]
AC (bovine) BMSC (rat) alginate/monolayer --- indirect osteogenesis? [119]
AC (human) BMSC (human) alginate/chitosan microcapsules 10:1, 5:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10 direct ↑DNA ↑total protein [111]
AC (human) BMSC (human) pellet 1:1, 1:3, 1:9 direct ↑coll. II, coll. I, S100, PG ↓coll. X [114]
AC (human) BMSC (human) pellet PLGA/insert 3:7 direct indirect ↑coll. II, coll. IX, COMP, PG, SOX9 [84]
AC (human) ASC (human) pellet conditioned medium 1:1 direct indirect ↑coll. II, PG, SOX9, coll. X [16]
AC (human) ASC (human) fibrin coll. scaffold pellet 1:20, 1:10, 1:5 direct ↑coll. IX, aggrecan, SOX9, COMP, CRTL1, MIA [115]
AC (human) ASC (rat) coll. scaffold 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 direct ↑PG, coll. I [124]
AU BMSC PGA/PLA scaffold 1:1 direct ↑Youngs module, ↑elastic fibers ↑proliferation [32]
costal chondrocytes BMSC PLGA scaffold 1:2 direct indirect ↑chondrogenesis [29]
AC: Articular Chondrocytes; ALP: Alkaline Phosphatase; AU: Auricular; BMSC: Bone-marrow Derived Stem Cells; COMP: Cartilage Oligomeric Protein; coll.: collagen; CRTL1: Cartilage Link Protein1; ITGA1: β1-integrin; dd: dedifferentiated; DF: Dermal Fibroblasts; FC: Fibro-chondrocytes; ASC: Adipose tissue derived Stem Cells; IHH: Indian Hedgehog; MDSC: Muscle-derived Stem Cell; MIA: Melanoma Inhibitory Activity; ML: Monolayer; MSC: Mesenchymal Stem Cells; NS: Nasoseptal; oa: osteoarthritic chondrocytes; OB: Osteoblasts; PEODA: Poly(ethylene oxide) diacrylate; PG: Proteoglycans; SOX9: SRY (Sex determining Region Y)-box 9.
Table 1b: Co-culture studies combining chondrocytes with mesenchymal stem cells.
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