Figure 2: The process of cell adhesion. A cell comes into contact with the substrate, attaches loosely, flattens, and begins to spread its membrane over the substrate surface. Simultaneously, the cell forms adhesion complexes that connect the Extracellular Matrix (ECM) with intracellular actin filaments (stress fibers) through integrin. These adhesion complexes lead to the establishment of Focal Adhesions (FAs), which anchor the cell securely on the surface of the substrate.