Figure 2: Brain reward cascade (normal and hypodopaminergic state).
2A. Happy Brain: Represents the normal physiologic state of the neurotransmitter interaction at the mesolimbic region of the brain. Briefly, serotonin in the hypothalamus stimulates neuronal projections of methionine enkephalin in the hypothalamus that, in turn, inhibits the release of GABA in the substania nigra, thereby allowing for the normal amount of Dopamine to be released at the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc); reward site of the brain [13]. 2B Unhappy Brain: Represents hypodopaminergic function of the mesolimbic region of the brain. The hypodopaminergic state is due to gene polymorphisms as well as environmental elements, including both stress and neurotoxicity from aberrant abuse of psychoactive drugs (i.e. alcohol, heroin, cocaine etc) and genetic variables [13].