Study Population-Target Group And Geographic Level Variables Controlled For Results
Ayuka et al. [36] General Population at meshblock level Controlling for individual level socio-demographics and neighborhood deprivation At the national level there was no evidence for an association between hazardous consumption and alcohol outlet access. However, there was evidence of associations with neighborhood retailing for younger Māori and Pacific peoples males; younger European females; middle-aged European men; and older men.  The findings provide evidence that ‘alcogenic’ environments are associated with excessive drinking in New Zealand, albeit that the associations are restricted to particular vulnerable groups.
De Lint et al. [106] Rush et al. [107] General Population at State level None Increase in number of outlets per capita was associated with an increase in consumption
Harford et al. [109] General Population at State level None States with high rates of on-premise alcohol outlets tended to have higher rates of alcohol consumption
Godfrey [122] Econometric study in England None An econometric study in England investigated the effect of gradual change in alcohol density on consumption using time series data from 1956 to 1980 and found that there was an association between licensing and beer consumption, but none for wine and spirits.
La Veist et  al. [103] African American Communities at census tract level Controlling for census tract socio-economic status More outlets located in African American neighborhoods .
Scribner et al. [111] General population at Census tract level in New Orleans (24 census tracts) Controlling for individual level socio-demographics and neighborhood deprivation Neighborhood level outlet density was significantly related to drinking norms and consumption, but not individual measures of accessibility.
Weitzman et al. [62] University students in Public universities in different geographic regions in United states and set in different communities for example small town, urban, suburban. None Outlet density has been found to be closely related to heavy and frequent drinking and drinking related problems among college students’ drinkers as well as in different sub groups, such as females.
Weitzman et al. [69] University students in 140 colleges across the US, mostly first year freshers None Most college binge drinkers reported that they were exposed to ‘wet’ environment when compared to non-binge drinkers.Wet environments included social, residential, and market surroundings in which drinking is prevalent and alcohol cheap and easily accessed.
Pollack et al. [100] General population living in four cities in  California (82 census tracts) Controlling for individual level socio-demographics and composite SES measures No association between distance to alcohol outlets and consumption.
Kunstche et al. 9th graders in schools in Switzerland aged between 12-18 Controlling for level of urbanization Areas with higher density, despite having a low perception from school masters had higher drinking rates
Dent et al. Students AGED 16-17 in 92 communities in Oregon None There is an association of youth drinking and commercial access
Kunstche et al. 8th and 9th graders in 254 communities in Switzerland None Community-level perceived availability and the density of on-premises but not off-premises outlets were related to volume drinking but not to the frequency of risky drinking occassions
Truong [110] General Population at Census tract level in California Controlling for individual level socio-demographics and neighborhood deprivation On-license outlets within a radius of one mile were associated with excessive consumption
Romley et al. [104] Alcohol outlets within African Americans neighborhoods at census tract level Controlling for census tract socio-economic status Higher density of alcohol outlets in African American neighborhoods
Huckle et al. [18] 12-17 year old young drinkers  in Auckland at Meshblock level Controlling for individual level socio-demographics (and deprivation for some analysis). Alcohol outlets were associated with quantity of consumption  and also associated with deprivation in New Zealand
Kypri et al. [118] Six university campuses in New Zealand Controlling for gender, age, ethnicity and high school binge drinking frequency, and adjustment for campus-level clustering. There was a positive relationship between outlet density and individual drinking as well as for personal problems
Scribner et al. [120] 17, 500 students in 32 colleges in the United States of America Controlling for individual predictors of college drinking On-Licenses located off campus have a strong association with college drinking outcomes.
Pearce et al. [99] Alcohol outlets in New Zealand urban areas None Most deprived areas have disproportionately better access and higher densities of alcohol outlets, measured both by distance and buffers of 800 and 3000 metres.
Hay et al. [123] Neighborhood deprivation and access to alcohol outlets None Most deprived areas have better access to alcohol outlets
Table 1: Studies on access to alcohol retails in association with alcohol consumption and variables controlled for.