Variable

Total N=2106
N (%) or M (SD)

Nonusers N=1962 (93.2%) N (%) or M (SD)

Users N=141 (6.8%) N (%) or M (SD)

Statistic*

p

Sociodemographics

 

 

 

 

 

Age (SD)

21.03 (2.79)

21.10 (2.83)

20.10 (1.94)

4.20

<.001

Gender (%)
  Male
  Female

 

614 (29.2)
1492 (70.8)

 

557 (28.4)
1405 (71.6)

 

57 (39.6)
87 (60.4)

8.14

.004

Ethnicity (%)
  White
  Black
  Other

 

1014 (48.1)
654 (31.1)
438 (20.8)

 

929 (47.3)
634 (32.3)
399 (20.3)

 

85 (59.0)
20 (13.9)
39 (27.1)

21.40

<.001

Parental education (%)
  < Bachelors degree
  ≥ Bachelors degree

 

1045 (49.6)
1061 (50.4)

 

985 (50.2)
977 (49.8)

 

60 (41.7)
84 (58.3)

3.91

.03

Other risk behaviors

 

 

 

 

 

Cigarette smoking past 30 days (%)
Nonsmoker
Nondaily smoker
Daily smoker

 

1660 (78.8)
333 (15.8)
113 (5.4)

 

1599 (81.5)
268 (13.7)
95 (4.8)

 

61 (42.4)
65 (45.1)
18 (12.5)

124.81

<.001

Alcohol use past 30 days (SD)

3.85 (5.51)

3.63 (5.35)

6.84 (6.71)

-6.82

<.001

Sex partners in the past year (SD)

1.37 (2.82)

1.34 (2.82)

1.85 (2.73)

-2.09

.04

Psychosocial factors

 

 

 

 

 

Depressive symptoms (%)
 No
Yes

 

1773 (91.8)
158 (8.2)

 

1665 (92.4)
136 (7.6)

 

108 (83.1)
22 (16.9)

14.18

.001

Perceived stress (SD)

6.26 (3.36)

6.22 (3.34)

6.77 (3.52)

-1.82

.07

Sensation seeking (SD)

3.42 (0.88)

3.39 (0.87)

3.81 (0.89)

-5.37

<.001

Big 5 factors (SD)
 
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Emotional stability
Openness

 

8.73 (2.94)
9.84 (2.31)
10.86 (2.45)
9.37 (2.69)
10.63 (2.31)

 

8.70 (2.94)
9.86 (2.32)
10.91 (2.43)
9.39 (2.69)
10.60 (2.32)

 

9.28 (2.92)
9.61 (2.27)
10.23 (2.59)
9.11 (2.64)
10.99 (2.24)

 

-2.19
1.17
3.11
1.14
-1.87

 

.03
.24
.002
.25
.06

* independent samples t-test for continuous variables (df = 2104); chi-squared tests for categorical variables
Table 1: Participant characteristics and bivariate analyses comparing hookah users and nonusers.