Authors Subjects Method Intervention Results
a) Animal Studies        
Marenco et al. [156] Rats- chronically nic exposed vs. nic naive 2-deoxy-D-[1-14C] glucose autoradiography SC nic
(0.4 mg/kg) vs. saline
↑­ thal, superior colliculus in chronically exposed; ­ thal, superior colliculus, medial habenula and dorsal lateral geniculate in nic naive
London et al. [38, 39] Rats 2-deoxy-D-[1-14C]glucose autoradiography SC nic
(0.1 to 1.75 mg/kg)
↑­ nicotine rich regions, including thal, cereb, visual system, others
b) Human Studies        
Staley et al.
16 smokers
16 non-smokers
5 IA-SPECT Recent abstinence ↑­ Striatum, Parietal cortex, frontal cortex, anterior cingulated, temporal cortex, occipital cortex, cerebellum
Zubieta et al. [43] 19 smokers 15O-PET Nicotine containing versus denicotinized cigarettes ↓­ global blood flow
Stapleton et al. [27] 4 smokers; 2 non-smokers 2 FDG-PETs
(Fully quantified)
IV nic (1.5 mg) versus placebo ↓global and most regions studied
Yamamoto et al. [25] 10 smokers 99mTc-ECD SPECT Cigarette vs. abstinence ↓global blood flow
Rose et al. [35] 34 smokers 15O-PET Cigarette vs. no nic control conditions ↑L frontal factor (incl prefrontal and ACC),↓ L amyg rCBF
Zubieta et al. [40] 18 smokers 15O-PET Nic nasal spray vs. pepper spray ↑anterior thal; ↓ L ant temp and R amyg
Domino et al. [26] 11 smokers FDG-PET Nic nasal spray vs. pepper spray Small ↓ global; ↑ L IFG, L PC, R thal, visual cortex; ↓ normalized L ins and R inf occ ctx
Domino et al. [37] 18 smokers 15O-PET Nic nasal spray vs. pepper spray ↑ thal, pons, visual cortex, cereb
Stein et al. [36] 16 smokers fMRI IV nic
(0.75- 2.25 mg/70 kg wt) vs. placebo
↑ R NAc and bilateral amyg, cingulate, frontal lobes, thal, others
Rourke et al. [28] 8 smokers; 8 former smokers; 17 non-smokers iodine-123 iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT Smokers smoked the morning of the scan; other groups did not ↓ cortical uptake of IMP
(a measure of blood flow) in current smokers compared to other groups
All regional changes represent normalized activity, unless otherwise stated. SC = subcutaneous; nic = nicotine; thal = thalamus; cereb = cerebellum; SPECT = single photon emission computed tomography; fMRI = functional magnetic resonance imaging; IV = intravenous; R = right; L = left; NAc = nucleus accumbens; amyg = amygdala; FDG = 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose; PET = positron emission tomography; IFG = inferior frontal gyrus; PC = posterior cingulate; ins = insula; inf occ ctx = inferior occipital cortex; ant = anterior; temp = temporal lobe; ACC = anterior cingulate cortex
Table 1: Functional brain imaging studies of nicotine or cigarette administration.