Author Subjects Method/Task Intervention Results
Hartwell et al. [121] 32 smokers fMRI/smoking vs. neutral cues “allow yourself to crave” vs. “resist craving” ↑ activation during “crave” condition in LACC, medial prefrontal cortex, left middle cingulate gyrus, bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus, and bilateral precuneus
Goudriaan et al. [123] 17 non-smoking problem gamblers; 18 non-gambling smokers; 17 non-gambling non-smoking controls fMRI/gambling, smoking-related, and neutral pictures none Smokers with higher FTND scores showed ↑ activation in VMPFC, rostral ACC, insula, and middle/superior temporal gyrus while watching smoking-related pictures compared to patients with lower FTND scores
Janes et al. [125] 13 smokers fMRI/smoking-related vs. neutral images Pre-quit vs. extended (52 +/- 11 days) abstinence aided by nicotine replacement therapy Smoking cue induced ↑ activity during abstinence in subcortical caudate nucleus and prefrontal, primary somatosensory, temporal, parietal, occipital, and posterior cingulate cortices.
Janse Van Rensburg et al. [126] 10 smokers fMRI/smoking-related vs. neutral images Exercise vs. sitting Post-exercise ↓ activity in caudate nucleus, orbitofrontal cortex, parietal lobe, parahippocampal, and fusiform gyrus and ↑activity in “default” regions compared to controls
McClernon et al. [124] 30 smokers fMRI/smoking-related vs. neutral images none ↑ reactivity to cues in right anterior cingulate and OFC in patients with higher FTND scores; ↑ reactivity in left hippocampus and left OFC in males; ↑ reactivity in cuneus and left superior temporal gyrus in females
Brody et al. [122] 42 smokers fMRI/smoking-related vs. neutral images Crave vs. resist craving ↑ activation during “resist” condition in left dorsal ACC, PCC, and precuneus; ↓activation during “resist” condition in cuneus bilaterally, right postcentral gyrus, left lateral occipital gyrus
fMRI = functional magnetic resonance imaging; FTND = Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; VMPFC = ventromedial prefrontal cortex; ACC = anterior cingulate cortex; OFC = orbitofrontal cortex; PCC = posterior cingulate cortex
Table 3: Functional brain imaging studies of smoking-related cue reactivity.