Author Subjects Method/Task Intervention Results
Froeliger et al. [127] 17 smokers fMRI/Stroop 24-h abstinence vs. ad libitum smoking Abstinence increased Stroop BOLD response in right middle frontal and rostral anterior cingulate gyri
Addicott et al. [128] 13 smokers fMRI/wheel of fortune 24-h abstinence vs. ad libitum smoking ↑ activation in postcentral gyrus, insula, and frontal and parietal cortices in abstinent condition during choice selection; ↑ activation in frontal pole, insula, and paracingulate cortex in abstinent condition during reward anticipation
Sweet et al. [129] 12 smokers fMRI/2-Back Abstinence plus nicotine patch vs. abstinence plus placebo patch Withdrawal associated with ↓ activity in left and right temporal poles and left medial frontal gyrus
fMRI = functional magnetic resonance imaging; BOLD = blood oxygenation level dependent
Table 4: Functional brain imaging studies of nicotine withdrawal.