Reinforcer

Animals

Treatment

Reinstatement Stimuli

Effect

Reference

Cocaine (SA)

Male, SD

Intra-PVT administration
CART 55-102 (0.625µg and 2.5µg)

Cocaine Prime (10mg/kg)

2.5µg dose significantly attenuated reinstatement

James et al. (2010) +

Cocaine (SA)

Male, SD rat

SB-334867 (10, 20, 30mg/kg; i.p.)

4PT (10, 30mg/kg; i.p.)

Tone + cue lights paired with cocaine infusions

SB-334867: Dose-dependent decrease in reinstatement.

4PT: No effect on reinstatement

Smith et al. (2009)

Cocaine (SA)

Male, SD, rat

SB-334867 (10, 20, 30mg/kg; i.p.)

Re-exposure to SA environment following abstinence

Context (visual, auditory, olfactory and tactile cues)

Dose-dependently decreased reinstatement following abstinence and context-induced reinstatement

Smith et al. (2010)

Cocaine (SA)

Male, SD rat

Intra-VTA SB-334867 (1µg and 3µg/0.5µl, unilaterally)

S+ (Background white noise)

Decreased reinstatement (3µg)

James et al. (2010)

Cocaine (SA)

Male, Wistar rat

1. SB-334867 (15, 30mg/kg; i.p.)

2. Orexin-A
(0.3, 0.75, 1.5nmol; i.c.v.)

  1. Footshock (15mins, 0.5mA, variable interval 40s)
  1. None
  1. Dose-dependent decrease in reinstatement
  1. 0.75 and 1.5nmol doses induced reinstatement (dose-dependently)

Boutrel et al. (2005)

Cocaine (SA)

Male, LE rat

1. Intra-VTA Hcrt-1 and Hcrt-2 (10µm)

2. Intra-VTA SB-408124

1.   None

2.   Footshock (20mins, 0.4-0.6mA, variable interval 40 + 30s)

1.  Hcrt-1: induced reinstatement. Hcrt-2: No effect

 2.  No effect

Wang et al. (2009)

+ Only one other study has investigated the functional role of CART on reinstatement behaviour. King et al. (2010) showed that i.c.v. administration of CART 55-102 (0.625μg and 1.25μg), but not CART 1-27 (1.25μg), dose-dependently decreased reinstatement alcoholic beer-seeking in a renewal model. * SA: Self-administration, SB-334867 and SB-408124 are selective OXR1 antagonists. 4PT is a selective OXR2 antagonist.
Table 2: Summary of studies investigating the functional effects of CART and orexin on reinstatement of psychostimulant-seeking behaviour.