Reinforcer Animals Treatment Reinstatement Stimuli Effect Reference
Cocaine (SA) Male, SD Intra-PVT administration
CART 55-102 (0.625µg and 2.5µg)
Cocaine Prime (10mg/kg) 2.5µg dose significantly attenuated reinstatement James et al. (2010) +
Cocaine (SA) Male, SD rat SB-334867 (10, 20, 30mg/kg; i.p.) 4PT (10, 30mg/kg; i.p.) Tone + cue lights paired with cocaine infusions SB-334867: Dose-dependent decrease in reinstatement. 4PT: No effect on reinstatement Smith et al. (2009)
Cocaine (SA) Male, SD, rat SB-334867 (10, 20, 30mg/kg; i.p.) Re-exposure to SA environment following abstinence Context (visual, auditory, olfactory and tactile cues) Dose-dependently decreased reinstatement following abstinence and context-induced reinstatement Smith et al. (2010)
Cocaine (SA) Male, SD rat Intra-VTA SB-334867 (1µg and 3µg/0.5µl, unilaterally) S+ (Background white noise) Decreased reinstatement (3µg) James et al. (2010)
Cocaine (SA) Male, Wistar rat 1. SB-334867 (15, 30mg/kg; i.p.) 2. Orexin-A
(0.3, 0.75, 1.5nmol; i.c.v.)
•Footshock (15mins, 0.5mA, variable interval 40s)
•Dose-dependent decrease in reinstatement
•0.75 and 1.5nmol doses induced reinstatement (dose-dependently)
Boutrel et al. (2005)
Cocaine (SA) Male, LE rat 1. Intra-VTA Hcrt-1 and Hcrt-2 (10µm) 2. Intra-VTA SB-408124 1.   None
2.   Footshock (20mins, 0.4-0.6mA, variable interval 40 + 30s)
1.  Hcrt-1: induced reinstatement. Hcrt-2: No effect  
2.  No effect
Wang et al. (2009)
+ Only one other study has investigated the functional role of CART on reinstatement behaviour. King et al. (2010) showed that i.c.v. administration of CART 55-102 (0.625μg and 1.25μg), but not CART 1-27 (1.25μg), dose-dependently decreased reinstatement alcoholic beer-seeking in a renewal model. * SA: Self-administration, SB-334867 and SB-408124 are selective OXR1 antagonists. 4PT is a selective OXR2 antagonist.
Table 2: Summary of studies investigating the functional effects of CART and orexin on reinstatement of psychostimulant-seeking behaviour.
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