Group

Drug

AD stage

Beneficial Effect

Risk

Dosage

Acetilcholinesterase
inhibitor

Tacrine

Mild-to-moderate

Improves cognition and behavior

Hepatotoxicity

Initial:10 mg/6h
Maintenance: 30 mg/6h

 

Galantamine

Mild-to-moderate

Improves learning and memory, cortical protection, inhibition of Aß aggregation

Nausea, vomiting, weight loss

Solution-Initial: 4mg/12h
Maintenance: 8mg/12h
Capsules-Initial: 8mg/day
Maintenance: 16mg/day
Maximum:24mg/day

 

Donepezil

Moderate-to-severe

Improves cognition.
Good tolerante.

Muscle
weakness

Initial: 5mg/day
Maintenance:10 mg/day

 

Rivastigmine

Mild-to-moderate

Improves cognition.
Good tolerance

Gastric damage
Hepatotoxicity

Oral-Initial: 1,5 mg/12h
Maintenance:3-6mg/12h
Transdermic-Initial: 4,6 mg/day
Maintenance:9,5 mg/day

NMDA receptor
antagonist

Memantine

Moderate-to-severe

Decreases Aß aggregation, prevents synaptic dysfunction, inhibits tauhyperphosphorylation

Hallucinations
Confusion
Debilitation

Initial: 5mg/day
Maintenance: 20 mg/day

Table 1: Drugs approved for the AD treatment.
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