Author/s Type of treatment Methodology Contribution
1. Abdullah  [56] Historical analysis Historical analysis,  literature review (Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)) Meaning of drug use has changed over time and context depending on socio political surroundings. Overwhelming societal concern that has created an ideology of drug use as a moral ‘problem’. [Drugs reported were limited to amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)]
2. al’Absi and Mustafa [57] Neurobiology of stress addiction and the psychosocial processes Academic text with overlapping chapter reviews Abusing drugs and experiences of stress act on similar areas in the brain and involve overlapping neuronal mechanisms
3. Ana et al. [26] Group Motivational Interviewing (GMI) and Therapist Attention Activity Control Group (TAACG) Quasi-experiment Patients participated in GMI during inpatient treatment were more frequent in after care treatment and consumed less alcohol in follow up compared to attendees of TAACG
4. Avants et al. [4] Socially anxious drug dependents in low intensity and high intensity psychosocial treatment programmes (with cocaine). Quasi –experiment Socially anxious methadone maintained (treatment for cocaine dependence) patients who stay clean in treatment manage to be abstinent post treatment longer when in low intensity treatment programmes. They also display less HIV risk taking behaviours.
5. Barber et al. [27] Supportive Expressive Dynamic Therapy (SET) and Individual Drug Counselling (IDC) (with cocaine) Quasi-experiment SET and high levels of IDC had less predicted drug use compared to SET alone. Straightforward dug counselling is better predictor of outcome compared to making addicts understand the cause of dependency.
6. Book et al. [15] Social anxiety and participation in group setting treatment Experiment Socially anxious substance abusers are less willing to attend self help groups, present with more psychopathology then non- socially anxious substance abusers.
7. Chong and Lopez [42] Social network, family, peer support and psychosocial functioning Correlational study Social support and family involvement during treatment influences outcome of treatment to improved psychosocial functioning
8. Crits-Cristoph et al. [28] Psychosocial treatment with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Supportive Expressive Therapy (SET), Individual Drug counseling (IDC) and Group Drug Counselling (GDC) on psychosocial and other addiction associated problems  (with cocaine) Quasi-experiment No significant differences between psychiatric symptoms, employment, medical, legal, family, social, interpersonal or alcohol consumption problems. Efficacy of IDC does not extend to treatment of other associated addiction –related issues.
9. Crits-Cristoph et al. [30] Psychosocial treatment - 12 step philosophy as mediator of outcome with IDC+ GDC and CBT as mediator of outcome with IDC+GDC (with cocaine) Quasi-experiment 12 step beliefs incorporated with IDC+GDC produces  better treatment outcome compared to CBT with IDC+GD
10. Crits-Cristoph et al. [35] Supportive Expressive Dynamic Therapy (SET) and Individual Drug Counselling (IDC) Quasi-experiment SET and high levels of IDC had less predicted drug use compared to SET alone.
11. False-Stewart and Bate [58] Neuropsychological tests on  participants from Outpatient Treatment Programme and the Therapeutic Community Quasi-experiment Education, years of alcohol use, number of substance use dependence disorders, percentage of days of heavy drinking in previous year, depression, familial alcoholism, pre-morbid level of cognitive functioning, liver functioning and previous head injuries identified as risk factors for latent cognitive abilities.
12. Hesse [24] Systematic search of MedLine and PsychInfo Review Psychotherapeutic treatment for co-morbid depression and substance abuse though promising does not have empirical support as of yet. Treatment of co-morbid anxiety and substance abuse is not supported empirically either. 
13. Lash et al.  [59] Contracts, attendance, prompts and reinforces (CPR) & Standard treatment (STX) Comparison study CPR appears to be more effective in treatment adherence compared to STX
14. Lemieux [32] Social support and familial support: DV-perception of available social support: IV-number of visits, letters, length of time in treatment and criminal history. Correlational study Social support was significantly associated with the IVs’. Substance abuse treatment should address environmental factors, social and familial support.
15. Leshner [60] Review of addiction as a disease Review Addiction as a chronic relapsing disorder with behavioural and social context aspects. Treatment should incorporate biological, behavioural and social aspects.
16. Malhotra et al.  [5] Review of Psychosocial Treatments of Substance Use Disorders in Adolescents (with cocaine) Review Psychosocial treatment is effective in treating the addict and his/her family as well.
17. Smith and Book  [3] Review of anxiety and substance use disorders Review Both anxiety and substance abuse disorder should be treated together. Very few studies done on integrated treatment approach.
18. Vuchinich et al.  [51] Behavioural day treatment, Abstinent- contingent housing & Vocational Training Correlational study There is a strong relationship between in patient and follow-up abstinence, independent of the treatment setting
19. Watkins et al.  [8] Review of treatment for co-occuring affective and substance use disorders Review There is evidence of simultaneous treatment for co morbid disorders and substance abuse. Pharmacotherapy has influence on outcome but studies lack empirical evidence on specificity of the treatment
Table 1: Characteristics and contributions from the literature based on the type of treatment and methodology employed.
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