Characteristic Elite Controllers Long-term Nonprogressors Comments
Magnitude of viral load Typically below the limit of detection of the clinical assay (i.e. <50 copies/mL) N/A Low to moderate viremia is common in LTNP
Longitudinal characteristics of viral load suppression Varying definitions:
a) ≥3 undetectable VLs over ≥12 months1, 9
b) Undetectable VLs for ≥2 years11
c) >90% with undetectable VLs for ≥10 years12
Magnitude of CD4 cell count N/A ≥500 cells/uL most common CD4 cell counts typically elevated in elite controllers
Longitudinal characteristics of CD4 cell count N/A Varying definitions:
a) All CD4 counts ≥600 cells/uL for ≥7 years13
a) All CD4 values ≥500 cells/uL for ≥8 years3
b) All CD4 values ≥500 cells/uL for ≥10 years1
c) Definitions including both magnitude and slope of CD4 over time14, 15
Antiretroviral therapy No therapy No therapy  
AIDS-defining illness Absent Absent  
Table 1: Variability of Definitions in the Literature for Elite Controllers and Long- term Nonprogressors.
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