Figure 4: Effects of Stampidine on HIV-induced Dynamic Gene Expression Changes. Gene expression values (signal difference metric) were mean centered to 24 h time point post-HIV exposure in the presence and absence of Stampidine to assess genes dynamically induced in expression by the virus at 48 h. One-way agglomerative hierarchical clustering technique was used to organize gene expression patterns across treatments to identify genes with similar profiles. The heat map depicts genes upregulated (red) vs. downregulated (green) at 48 h relative to 24 h. Fifty-two genes exhibited significant upregulation after HIV infection in the absence of Stampidine and signal difference values greater than 20. Comparison of control versus Stampidine treatment showed that all of these HIV-induced genes were downregulated with Stampidine treatment within 48 hours (24 hours or 48 hours or combined 24 and 48 hour time points).