SF-36 (McDowell & Newell, 1996)

Ongoing development since
1970s, current form originated from 245-item questionnaire. 3,445 respondents in initial study

SF-36 scales have been shown to achieve about 80-90% of their empirical validity

Good to excellent (0.80)
Sensitive to change

(Skevington et al.,
2004; The WHOQOL
Group, 2004)

Multi-national project, 23 countries, 11,830 adults respondents;
Cross-culturally sensitive;
Sick & well respondents sampled

Discriminant validity and construct validity determined through
confirmatory factor analysis
performs well (needs further
assessment of concurrent validity in comparison to relevant other measures)

Internal consistency determined good to excellent

(EuroQoL Group, 1990; McDowell & Newell, 1996)

European project, 3 countries; 592 adult respondents; Cross culturally sensitive; Sick and well respondents sampled

Intraclass correlation coefficient good to excellent demonstrated

Studies of 87 and 104 respondents report good reliability

Missoula - VITAS Quality of Life Index (MVQOLI) (Schwartz, Merriman, Reed, Ma & Byock, 2005)

144 end-stage renal disease
on dialysis patients and 31 hospice or long-term
care patients

Good (0.87)

Good (0.77)





DQLCTQ-R (Shen et al., 1999)

Multi-national project, 4 countries; 942 patients

Intraclass correlation coefficients range from good to excellent
(Intraclass correlation coefficients range from 0.74 to 0.90 and Cronbach's alphas range from 0.77 to 0.90)

Good to excellent reliability demonstrated, responsive to change

Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) (Hays et al., 1994)

Multi-national project, 165 individuals with kidney disease

Intraclass correlation coefficients range from good to excellent (0.77)

Good to excellent reliability demonstrated (0.76)

WHOQOL-HIV Bref (O’ Connell et al., 2003)

900 people from six culturally diverse sites completed the WHOQOL-100 along with 115 HIV specific items

Excellent (0.89)

Excellent (0.88)

Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) (Rector et al., 1987)

Patients with LV dysfunction participating
in several studies (83; 84% males)

The instrument correlated highly with patients’ global assessments of restrictions on their lives (r = 0.80).

Good results for the reliability of the instrument (correlation coefficient -0.43 to -0.73)

EORTC QLQ-C30 (Aaronson et al., 1993, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Study Group on Quality of Life)

305 patients with nonresectable lung cancer from centers in 13 countries

Intraclass correlation coefficients range from good to excellent

Good to excellent reliability demonstrated

Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) (Meenan et al., 1980)

The self-administered AIMS questionnaire has been pilot tested in a mixed arthritis population

Good to excellent

Good to excellent reliability demonstrated (>0.80), responsive to change

Table 1: HRQOL Instruments.
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