Drug Effect(s) Nature of experiment/no of patients Dose Duration References
HAART Reduction in the plasma concentration of protein sulfhydrl groups and  vitamin C 85 HIV positive patients Stavudin (80 mg) + Lamivudin (600 mg) + Nevirapin + (400 mg) zidovudine (600 mg)  -  Ngondi et al. [30]
One PI and two NRTIs;
One NNRTI and two NRTI
Decreased     antioxidant status in HIV-1 treated group.
Significantly higher oxidative status 
116 HIV-1-infected patients (86 HAART-treated and 30 untreated), and 46 HIV-negative control. - average of 6.3
± 2.2 years
Mandas et al. [207]
EFV (NNRTI) Triggered apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway. Inducing an increase in mitochondrial superoxide production, reduction in cellular glutathione content. In vitrostudies human
hepatic cells.
(10, 25 and 50 mM) 72 hours incubation Apostolova et al. [48]
PI (nelfinavir NFV) Induces oxidative stress by increased ROS production In vitro studies; cell culture  30 μmol/l NFV 18 hours Ben-Romano et al. [208]
Nevirapine (NVP; Viramune) Significant decrease in the activities of hepatic, renal and testicular superoxide dismutase and catalase. Induced oxidative stress with corresponding decline in antioxidant status of the rats. Twenty-one rats 18 and 36 mg/kg body weight 4 consecutive weeks. Adaramoye et al. [203]
HIV patients undergoing HAART Significant decrease in the levels of GSH in both naive and HIV-TB co-infected patients  and HIV patients on HAART.
Lower antioxidant level and higher MDA in naive and HIV-TB co-infected patients as compared to HIV patients on HAART and the seronegative patients.
100 consenting subjects (aged 18 to 40 years)         patients on HAART  Standard dose - Awodele et al. [209]
Saquinavir Decreased sperm motility in vitro and negatively affects   acrosome reaction       Ahmad et al. [210]
Table 1: Summary of effects of HAART on oxidative status in MGT/semen.
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