Antioxidant modalities Nature of experiment Subjects   Outcome Duration References
Serum levels of vitamins A and E Non-concurrent prospective study in 341 men. vitamin E levels (23.5 μmol/l) Decrease in risk of progression to AIDS - Tang et al. [159]
Antioxidant vitamins (A,C,E) supplementation
Measurement of levels of oxidatively-modified DNA bases in lymphocytes of sero-positive patients & controls. Asymptomatic HIV-infected patients (n is 30), as well as in control groups (10 healthy volunteers and 15 HIV-sero-negative injected drug users). Significant decrease in the levels of all modified DNA bases; decreased antioxidant enzyme activities 6 months. Jaruga et al. [54]
Daily supplements of vitamin A, multivitamins (vitamins B, C, and E). 1078 pregnant women infected with HIV in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Human Significantly higher CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts and significantly lower viral loads. Multivitamin supplements delay the progression of HIV disease and provide an effective Over a two-year period Fawzi et al. [211]
Selenium therapy trial Two hundred and fifty-nine HIV-infected participants were enrolled in a randomized double blind trial. Human Lower risk of hospitalization 1998 to 2000. Burbano et al. [117]
Endogenous Vitamin C 85 HIV positive patients Human No difference were found in the level of vitamin C 3 to 6 months. Ngondi et al. [30]
Vitamins E and C  50 mg/kg diet α-tocopheryl acetate, Vitamin E (200 mg·kg–1 diet, Fifty male rabbits. Increase in TBA-RS
association with supranutritional levels of vitamins E and C inhibited the
oxidative processes and improved the characteristics of fresh and stored rabbit semen
For 5 wks starting from the 5th month of age Castellini et al. [142]
Zidovudine (AZT) and vitamin C AZT (1 mg/ml) in the drinking water, six vitamin C (10 g/kg of food) and AZT, six vitamin C alone   Animal (rat) AZT caused morphological alterations in cardiac myocyte mitochondria, prevented by vitamin C;   Vitamin C antagonizes these adverse effects of AZT Long-term treatment for 8 months Papparella et al. [116]
Table 2: Summary of antioxidant modalities and oxidative outcomes.
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