Characteristics Knowledge Score < 81% (n=96) Knowledge Score > 81% (n=118) P-Value Overall♯ (n=214)
Age (years), mean (SD) 37.7 ± 10.6 34.6 ± 10.3 0.04 36.0 (10.5)
Sex (female), n (%) 53 (55) 61 (52) 0.61 114 (53)
Marital status (single), n (%) 29 (30) 40 (34) 0.32 69 (32)
Education level (< Diploma), n (%) 81 (84) 84 (71) 0.02 165 (77)
Religion (Christian-Protestant), n (%) 45 (47) 53 (45) 0.86 98 (46)
HIV status, n (%)        
Negative 36 (37) 68 (58) 0.00 104 (49)
Positive 47 (49) 23 (19)   70 (33)
Unknown 13 (14) 27 (23)   40 (19)
Household HIV status (no one with HIV), n (%) 73 (76) 97 (82) 0.31 170 (79)
Alcohol use (none), n (%) 76 (79) 78 (66) 0.03 154 (72)
Recreational drug use (none), n (%) 77 (80) 97 (83) 0.61 174 (81)
Current drug use (none), n (%) 90 (94) 115 (98) 0.08 205 (96)
Injection drug use (none), n (%) 91 (95) 118 (100) 0.01 209 (98)
Number of sex partners, n (%)        
None 19 (20) 10 (8) 0.02 29 (14)
1 partner 47 (49) 76 (64) 0.02 123 (58)
>1 partner 30 (31) 32 (27) 0.51 62 (29)
Sex without a condom (mostly/always), n (%) 42 (44) 30 (25) 0.01 72 (34)
Sex for money or gifts (none), n (%) 83 (86) 110 (93) 0.10 193 (90)
Monthly household income (Ksh*), n (%)        
0-999 47 (51) 43 (38) 0.01 90 (42)
1000-1999 20 (22) 34 (30)   54 (25)
2000-2999 6 (6) 21 (19)   27 (13)
>3000 20 (22) 15 (13)   35 (16)
Monthly household money on healthcare (lowest quintile†), n (%) 68 (71) 57 (49) 0.02 125 (58)
Transport cost to clinic (Ksh*), n (%)        
0-19 47 (49) 69 (58) 0.03 116 (54)
20-199 25 (26) 36 (31)   61 (29)
>200 24 (25) 13 (11)   37 (17)
Time travel to clinic (minutes), n (%)        
0-29 44 (46) 72 (61) 0.09 116 (54)
30-59 36 (38) 32 (27)   68 (32)
>60 16 (17) 14 (12)   30 (14)
* Kenya Shillings (exchange rate on December 8, 2011, 1 USD = 89.2 Ksh) Overall numbers of participants are based on completed HIV transmission knowledge questionnaires.
† <500 Ksh/month vs. ≥500 Ksh/month
Table 2: Participant characteristics and factors associated with HIV transmission knowledge, bivariate analysis.