Total (n=1,240) Prevalence of Lipohypertrophy
Overall (n=1240) Men (n=628) Women (n=612)
Gender        
Men 628 (50.6) 242 (38.5) - -
Women 612 (49.4) 328 (53.6) - -
P value   <0.001    
Age (years)        
18-34 471 (38.0) 211 (44.8) 69 (32.7) 142 (67.3)
35-49 591 (47.7) 266 (45.0) 135 (50.8) 131 (49.2)
50-78 178 (14.3) 93 (52.2) 38 (40.9) 55 (59.1)
P value   0.2 0.3 0.3
Skin color        
White 692 (55.8) 298 (43.1) 148 (49.7) 150 (50.3)
Non-white 548 (44.2) 272 (49.6) 94 (34.6) 178 (65.4)
P value   0.02 0.8 0.005
Years at school        
<12 1,097 (88.5) 504 (45.9) 199 (39.5) 305 (60.5)
 ≥ 12 143 (11.5) 66 (46.2) 43 (65.2) 23 (34.8)
P value   1.0 0.17 0.5
Smoking (pack-years)        
 Never-smoker 422 (34.0) 221 (52.4) 81 (36.7) 140 (63.3)
< 20 498 (40.2) 211 (42.4) 87 (41.2) 124 (58.8)
≥ 20 320 (25.8) 138 (43.1) 74 (53.6) 64 (46.4)
P value   0.005 0.15 0.06
Physical activity        
Active 716 (57.7) 324 (45.3) 114 (35.2) 210 (64.8)
Inactive or sedentary 524 (42.3) 246 (46.9) 128 (52.0) 118 (48.0)
P value   0.6 0.008 0.2
Binge drinking        
Yes 211 (17.0) 91 (43.1) 56 (61.5) 35 (38.5)
No 1,029 (83.0) 479 (46.6) 186 (38.8) 293 (61.2)
P value   0.6 0.9 0.8
Body mass index (kg/m2)        
< 25 708 (57.1) 223 (31.5) 94 (42.2) 129 (57.8)
25–29.9 380 (30.6) 220 (57.9) 105 (47.7) 115 (52.3)
≥ 30 152 (12.3) 127 (83.6) 43 (33.9) 84 (66.1)
P value   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Years since HIV diagnosis
<3 485 (39.1) 206 (42.5) 82 (39.8) 124 (60.2)
3-5 350 (28.3) 169 (48.3) 73 (43.2) 96 (56.8)
≥ 6 404 (32.6) 195 (48.3) 87 (44.6) 108 (55.4)
P value   0.14 0.19 0.4
Currently on HAART        
Yes 815 (65.7) 409 (50.2) 167 (40.8) 242 (59.2)
No 425 (34.3) 161 (37.9) 75 (46.6) 86 (53.4)
P value   <0.001 0.4 <0.001
CD4 count (cel/mm3) (n=1,227)
<350 476 (38.8) 193 (40.5) 86 (44.6) 107 (55.4)
≥ 350 751 (61.2) 372 (49.5) 153 (41.1) 219 (58.9)
P value   0.002 0.06 0.03
HIV-RNA viral load (n=1,221)
Undetectable 713 (57.5) 280 (39.3) 124 (44.3) 156 (55.7)
Detectable 508 (42.5) 282 (55.5) 113 (40.1) 169 (59.9)
P value   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) (n=1,226)
<200 854 (69.7) 352 (41.2) 148 (42.0) 204 (58.0)
≥ 200 372 (30.3) 214 (57.5) 90 (42.1) 124 (57.9)
P value   <0.001 <0.001 0.001
HDL (mg/dL) (n=1,226)        
<35 152 (12.4) 50 (32.9) 28 (56.0) 22 (44.0)
≥ 35 1,074 (87.6) (86.7) 516 (48.0) 210 (40.7) 306 (59.3)
P value   <0.001 0.006 0.3
LDL (mg/dL) (n=1,225)        
<130 966 (78.9) 424 (43.9) 188 (44.3) 236 (55.7)
≥ 130 259 (21.1) 142 (54.8) 50 (35.2) 92 (64.8)
P value   0.002 0.04 0.1
Triglycerides (mg/dL) (n=1,227)
<150 787 (64.1) 316 (40.2) 107 (33.9) 209 (66.1)
≥150 440 (35.9) 251 (57.0) 132 (52.6) 119 (47.4)
P value   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) (n=1,226)
<126 1,185 (96.7) 538 (45.4) 223 (41.4) 315 (58.6)
≥126 41 (3.3) 28 (68.3) 15 (53.6) 13 (46.4)
P value   0.004 0.02 0.03
Percentages for the column of total add 100%; while for prevalence rates, the 100% is in the lines
Table 1: Characteristics of HIV-infected participants and prevalence of lipohypertrophy [n (%)].