Variables Total (n=100) No cognitive impairment (n=25) Cognitive impairment a (n=75) P value
Age>50 years 18 6 12 0.36
Male sex 75 21 54 0.23
African-American race 71 16 55 0.44
Education ≤ 12 years 68 13 55 0.08
Unemployed 50 16 34 0.16
CD4 nadir <200 b 32 9 23 0.39
HIV viral load ≥100,000 copies/ml 31 8 23 0.54
Homosexual risk factor 45 7 38 0.06
RPR Positive 22 5 17 0.51
Hepatitis B seropositive 30 11 19 0.08
Hepatitis C seropositive 15 2 13 0.34
Urine drug screen positive c 38 9 29 0.81
Moderate/severe depression d 41 7 34 0.16
MoCA score <26 e 79 15 64 0.01
a defined as greater than 1.5 standard deviation below the mean on 2 or more neuropsychological measures;
b CD4<200 at initial evaluation;
c cannabinoids (22), cocaine (11), opiates (11), amphetamines (3), PCP (2), benzodiazepines (2), polysubstance abuse (13);
d Beck’s Depression Inventory score;
e diagnostic accuracy of the MoCA: sensitivity: 85%; specificity: 40%; negative predictive value: 48%; positive predictive value: 81%.
Table 1: Bivariate analysis of variables associated with neurocognitive impairment in 100 HIV antiretroviral therapy naïve individuals.