Sample Characteristics HIV Status P value
HIV + HIV -
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)  
Age 40.19 (7.99) 39.61 (7.82) 40.73 (8.16) 0.4119
Years of heroin use 13.36 (7.85) 13.85 (6.65) 12.85 (8.94) 0.4813
Quality of life        
Physical 62.35 (16.25) 58.22 (17.57) 66.20 (13.96) 0.0040
Psychological 52.92 (15.59) 45.27 (15.91) 60.04 (11.43) 0.0000
Social relations 59.12 (17.02) 50.18 (18.61) 67.43 (9.79) 0.0000
Environmental 60.37 (15.08) 54.89 (16.15) 65.45 (12.05) 0.0000
  Percentage Percentage Percentage  
Gender        
Male 89.05 89.39 88.73 0.901
Female 10.95 10.61 11.27  
Education        
< HS 26.67 30.77 22.86 0.299
≥ HS 73.33 69.23 77.14  
Marital status        
Married 26.77 15.63 38.1 0.011
Single 52.76 64.06 41.27  
Other 20.47 20.31 20.63  
Occupation        
Jobless 50.00 55.74 44.44 0.049
Seasonal labor 10.48 14.75 6.35  
Full time 39.52 29.51 49.21  
Study sites        
Taipei 44.37 46.48 42.25 0.67
Keelung 42.25 43.66 40.84  
Banqiao 9.86 7.04 12.68  
Lotung 3.52 2.82 4.23  
Hepatitis C        
Negative 4.62 0 8.7 0.029
Positive 95.38 100 91.3  
Morphine Status        
Negative 34.85 47.69 22.39 0.002
Positive 65.15 52.31 77.61  
Table 1: Sample Characteristics and Bivariate Analysis between HIV Status and Independent and Outcome Variables.