Characteristica Total Cohort N=213 Clinically Significant Disease (CAC Score >100) N=16/213 Minimum Detectable Disease (CAC Score 1-100) N=55/213 No Detectable Disease (CAC=0) N=142/213 OR (95% CI) P-value
Variable of Interest            
Adiponectin, per 1.0 µg/ml increase 3.1 (2.2-4.4) 2.5 (2.0-3.7) 2.8 (2.1-3.9) 3.2 (2.3-4.4) 0.8 (0.7, 1.0) 0.06
Demographics            
Age, per 10 years 43 (36-49) 51 (49-55) 49 (42-55) 40 (31-45) 3.7 (2.5, 5.5) <0.0001
Ethnicity           0.01
Black 48 (22.5%) 1 (2.1%) 9 (18.7%) 38 (79.2%) 0.3 (0.1, 0.7)  
Hispanic 30 (14.1%) 2 (6.7%) 3 (10.0%) 25 (83.3%) 0.2 (0.1, 0.8)  
Other 27 (12.7%) 2 (7.4%) 8 (29.6%) 17 (63%) 0.7 (0.3, 1.8)  
White 108 (50.7%) 11 (10.2%) 35 (32.4%) 62 (57.4%) 1.0  
Clinical Information            
Hypertension            
No 150 (70.4%) 9 (6%) 26 (17.3%) 115 (76.7%) 1.0  
Yes 63 (29.6%) 7 (11.1%) 29 (46.0%) 27 (42.9%) 3.8 (2.1, 7.1) <0.0001
Diabetes           0.001
No 200 (93.9%) 13 (6.5%) 48 (24.0%) 139 (69.5%) 1.0  
Yes 13 (6.1%) 3 (23.0%) 7 (53.9%) 3 (23.1%) 5.9 (2.0, 17.2)  
CHD Risk Level by FRS           <0.0001
Low 169 (79.3%) 10 (5.9%) 34 (20.1%) 125 (74.0%) 1.0  
Moderate/High 44 (20.7%) 6 (14.0%) 21 (48.0%) 17 (38.0%) 4.0 (2.0, 7.7)  
Tobacco Use           0.5
Never 106 (49.8%) 5 (4.7%) 28 (26.4%) 73 (68.9%) 1.0  
Past 70 (32.9%) 7 (10.0%) 16 (22.9%) 47 (67.1%) 1.1 (0.6, 2.2)  
Current 37 (17.3%) 4 (10.8%) 11 (29.7%) 22 (59.5%) 1.5 (0.7, 3.3)  
HIV-specific Information            
Duration HIV infection (years) 11 (5-19) 20 (14-23) 17 (8-22) 8 (4-15) 1.1 (1.0, 1.1) <0.0001
CD4 count (cells/mm3),per 100 cells 583 (386-729) 643 (464-836) 480 (305-734) 587 (425-713) 1.1 (0.9, 1.3) 0.09
Nadir CD4 (cells/mm3), per 100 cells 260 (138-366) 257 (103-346) 170 (71-304) 284 (187-382) 0.7 (0.5, 0.8) 0.001
HIV RNA level (copies/ml)            
<50 148 (69.5%) 13 (8.8%) 38 (25.7%) 97 (65.5%) 1.0  
≥50 65 (30.5%) 3 (4.6%) 17 (26.2%) 45 (69.2%) 0.8 (0.4, 1.5) 0.5
Current HAART Use            
No 37 (17.4%) 1 (2.7%) 4 (10.8%) 32 (86.5%) 1.0  
Yes 176 (82.6%) 15 (8.5%) 51 (29.0%) 110 (62.5%) 3.8 (1.4, 10.2) 0.01
Total months NRTI use, per 12 months 76 (17.3-147) 154.4 (99-180.3) 125 (53-182) 47 (9.1-117.2) 1.1 (1.0,1.1) <0.0001
Total months protease 24.4 (0-71) 78.1 (24.4-117) 53 (3.3-105) 3.05 (0-63) 1.1 (1.0,1.2) 0.0001
inhibitor use, per 12 months            
Abacavir            
None 139 (65.3%) 6 (4.3%) 29 (20.9%) 104 (74.8%) 1.0  
Past or Current Use 74 (34.7%)   10 (13.5%) 26 (35.1%) 38 (51.4%) 2.9 (1.6, 5.1) 0.0004
Didanosine            
None 153 (71.8%) 8 (5.2%) 33 (21.6%) 112 (73.2%) 1.0  
Past or Current Use 60 (28.2%) 8 (13.3%) 22 (36.7%) 30 (50.0%) 2.7 (1.5, 5.0) 0.001
Tenofovir            
None 61 (28.6%) 4 (6.5%) 9 (14.8%) 48 (78.7%) 1.0  
Past or Current Use 152 (71.4%) 12 (7.9%) 46 (30.3%) 94 (61.8%) 2.1 (1.1, 4.3) 0.03
Ritonavir            
None 109 (51.2%) 3 (2.8%) 19 (17.4%) 87 (79.8%) 1.0  
Past or Current Use 104 (48.8%) 13 (12.5%) 36 (34.6%) 55 (52.9%) 3.6 (1.2, 6.6) <0.0001
Atazanavir            
None 142 (66.7%) 8 (6.0%) 33 (23.0%) 101 (71.0%) 1.0  
Past or Current Use 71 (33.3%) 8 (11.3%) 22 (31.0%) 41 (57.7%) 1.8 (1.0, 3.3) 0.04
Laboratory Results            
ESR , per 10 mm/hr 10 (7-18) 11 (9-24) 13 (10-19) 10 (7-18) 1.1 (0.9, 1.4) 0.12
hsCRP level (mg/dL) 0.2 (0.1-0.3) 0.2 (0.1-0.4) 0.2 (0.1-0.4) 0.2 (0.1-0.3) 1.2 (0.8, 1.8) 0.24
Total cholesterol, per 10 mg/dL 183 (158-211) 170 (161-220) 192 (164-217) 182 (157-204) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 0.18
HDL, per 10 mg/dL 40 (35-49) 39 (33-46) 41 (35-46) 40 (34-50) 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) 0.37
LDL , per 10 mg/dLb 102 (86-129) 102 (70-129) 109 (92-136) 98 (83-129) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 0.22
Fasting glucose, per 10 mg/dLb 92 (86-99) 99 (89-109) 93 (87-103) 91 (85-97) 1.2 (1.0, 1.4) 0.01
Triglyceride level, per 100 mg/dL 143 (94-243) 181 (115-270) 178 (118-247) 131 (79-235) 1.2 (1.0,1.4) 0.01
Weight and Fat Measurements            
BMI (kg/m2) 26.7 (24.2-29.4) 27.2 (25.4-29.4) 25.1 (24-28) 27 (24.3-30) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 0.15
Suprailiac measurement (mm) 16 (11-23.3) 16.4 (11-28) 16 (10-21) 17 (11.3-24) 1.0 (0.9, 1.0) 0.69
Subscapular measurement (mm) 21 (16-27.3) 20 (17-27) 22.3 (14-29) 21.1 (16-26.3) 1.0 (0.9, 1.0) 0.66
Biceps measurement (mm) 8 (5-11) 7.2 (5-11.2) 7 (4-11) 9 (5-11) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 0.2
Triceps measurement (mm) 16 (11.3-21) 18 (10-22) 15 (9-19.3) 17 (13-21) 0.9 (0.9, 1.0) 0.24
Waist circumference (cm) 94 (86-99) 96 (87-107) 91 (84-98) 94 (86-99) 1.0 (1.0, 1.0) 0.31
Thigh circumference (cm) 56 (52-60) 53 (51-58) 54 (50-57) 57 (53-61) 0.9 (0.9, 1.0) 0.01
Hip circumference (cm) 93 (87-98) 94 (87-100.2) 93 (86-98) 92.2 (87-98) 1.0, 0.9, 1.0) 0.72
Waist/Hip ratio (cm) 1.0 (0.9-1.0) 1.0 (1.0-1.1) 1.0 (0.9-1.0) 1 (0.9-1.0) 2.2 (0.3, 15.6) 0.41
Percent body fat b 26 (23-30) 29 (25.3-33.5) 27.1 (23-31) 26 (23-29) 1.0 (1.0, 1.1) 0.02
Physician Visual Assessment            
Lipohypertrophy 104 (48.8%) 11 (10.6%) 37 (35.6%) 56 (53.8%) 3.1 (1.7, 5.6) 0.0002
Lipoatrophy 81 (38.0%) 11 (13.6%) 28 (34.6%) 42 (51.8%) 3.0 (1.6, 5.3) 0.0002
a Categorical variables expressed as number (percentage) and continuous variables as median (interquartile range)
bAll values are n=213, except LDL (n=200), glucose (n=212) and percent body fat (n=212) due to missing values
BMI, body-mass index; CAC, coronary artery calcium score; CHD Risk level, coronary heart disease risk level; CI, 95% confidence interval; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; FRS, Framingham Risk Score ; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; hsCRP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NRTI, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor; OR, odds ratio
Table 1: Study Population Characteristics and Univariate Associations with Coronary Artery Disease by CAC Score among 213 HIV-Infected Men.