Characteristics Any OI recurred Total (%) Log rank test
 p-value
CHR [95%CI] p-value
for CHR
Yes (%) No (%)
Marital status
Married
Single
Divorced
Widowed
172 (42.4)
85 (20.9)
103 (25.4)
46 (11.3)
60 (46.2)
17 (13.0)
37 (28.5)
16 (12.3)
232 (43.3)
102 (19.0)
140 (26.1)
62 (11.6)
0.001 1
1.42 (1.09-1.84)
1.11 (0.87-1.41)
1.83 (1.32-2.54)
0.0088*
0.4236
0.0003*
Educational status
Not educated
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
184 (45.3)
122 (30.1)
71 (17.5)
29 (7.1)
52 (40.0)
28 (21.5)
24 (18.5)
26 (20.0)
236 (44.4)
150 (27.6)
95 (17.7)
55 (10.3)
<0.0001 1
0.92 (0.73-1.16)
0.74 (0.56-0.98)
0.45 (0.31-0.68)
0.461
0.038*
<0.0001*
Occupational status
Farmer
Merchant
Employed
Daily laborer
House wife
Unemployed
Student   
73 (18.0)
69 (17.0)
69 (17.0)
68 (16.7)
42 (10.3)
70 (17.3)
15 (3.7)
25 (19.2)
19 (14.6)
38 (29.2)
17 (13.1)
11 (8.5)
18 (13.9)
2 (1.5)
98 (18.3)
88 (16.4)
107 (20.0)
85 (15.9)
53 (9.9)
88 (16.4)
17 (3.2)
<0.0001 1
0.43 (0.31-0.60)
0.35 (0.25-0.48)
0.86 (0.62-1.21)
0.66 (0.45-0.97)
0.92 (0.66-1.28)
0.58 (0.33-1.01)
<0.0001*
<0.0001*
0.390
0.034*
0.612
0.055
CD4 count (cells/μl) B.
<=100
101-199
200-350
351-499
>=500
25 (6.2)
34 (8.4)
80 (19.7)
124 (30.5)
143 (35.2)
10 (7.7)
14 (10.8)
21 (16.1)
35 (26.9)
50 (38.5)
35 (6.5)
48 (9.0)
101 (18.8)
159 (29.7)
193 (36.0)
0.04 1
0.45 (0.27-0.77)
0.68 (0.43-1.07)
0.73 (0.48-1.13)
0.57 (0.37-0.87)
0.003*
0.096
0.158
0.010*
Hemoglobin (g/dl ) B.
<10
>=10
120 (36.4)
210 (63.6)
14 (21.9)
50 (78.1)
134 (34.0)
260 (66.0)
<0.0001 1
0.56 (0.45-0.70)
<0.0001*
Functional status B.
Working
Ambulatory
Bed ridden
307 (75.6)
88 (21.7)
11(2.7)
111 (85.4)
19 (14.6)
-
418 (78.0)
107 (20.0)
11 (2.0)
0.044 1
1.32 (1.09-1.67)
1.43 (0.72-2.61)
0.0226*
0.2488
Prophylaxis exposure B.
No
Yes
72 (17.7)
334 (82.3)
21 (16.2)
109 (83.8)
93 (17.4)
443 (82.6)
<0.0001 1
0.54 (0.42-0.70)
<0.0001*
Prophylaxis Adherence B.
Good
Fair
Poor
308 (92.2)
11 (3.3)
15 (4.5)
107 (98.2)
-
2 (1.8)
415 (93.7)
11 (2.5)
17 (3.8)
0.001 1
1.56 (0.85-2.44)
2.42 (1.43-4.09)
0.1506
0.001*
ART B.
No
Yes
200 (49.3)
206 (50.7)
68 (52.3)
62 (47.7)
268 (50.0)
268 (50.0)
<0.0001 1
0.68 (0.56-0.83)
<0.0001*
ART regimens ¥ B.
D4T+3TC+NVP
D4T+3TC+EFV
AZT+3TC+NVP
AZT+3TC+EFV
TDF+3TC+EFV
TDF+3TC+NVP
55 (26.7)
19 (9.3)
60 (29.1)
11 (5.3)
61 (29.6)
-
7 (11.3)
2 (3.2)
6 (9.7)
1 (1.6)
41 (66.1)
5 (8.1)
62 (23.1)
21 (7.8)
66 (24.6)
12 (4.6)
101 (37.7)
6 (2.2)
0.088 1
1.00 (0.59-1.69)
1.20 (0.83-1.74)
1.89 (0.98-3.64)
1.58 (1.08-2.32)
0.01 (0.001-1.10)
0.9999
0.3311
0.0566
0.0197*
0.9881
ART adherence B.
Good
Fair
Poor
194 (94.2)
5 (2.4)
7 (3.4)
61 (98.4)
1 (1.6)
-
255 (95.2)
6 (2.2)
7 (2.6)
<0.0001 1
2.15 (0.88-5.25)
3.89 (1.81-8.36)
0.092
<0.0001*
Body mass index (kg/m2)F.    
<=18.4
18.5-22.9
>=23
151 (37.2)
196 (48.3)
59 (14.5)
38 (29.2)
64 (49.3)
28 (21.5)
189 (35.3)
260 (48.5)
87 (16.2)
0.008 1
0.87 (0.71-1.08)
0.62 (0.46-0.84)
0.2142
0.0022*
CD4 count (cells/μl)F.
<=100
101-199
200-350
351-499
>=500
13 (4.8)
31 (11.4)
93 (34.3)
75 (27.7)
59 (21.8)
5 (5.7)
7 (8.0)
33 (37.9)
26 (29.9)
16 (18.5)
18 (5.0)
38 (10.7)
126 (35.2)
101 (28.2)
75 (20.9)
0.55 1
0.58 (0.30-1.12)
0.53 (0.29-0.94)
0.46 (0.25-0.83)
0.43 (0.23-0.79)
0.104
0.031*
0.010*
0.006*
Functional status F.
Working
Ambulatory
Bed ridden
345 (85.0)
51 (12.5)
10 (2.5)
126 (96.9)
3 (2.3)
1 (0.8)
471 (87.9)
54 (10.1)
11 (2.0)
0.006 1
1.59 (1.18-2.13)
1.32 (0.70-2.47)
0.0021*
0.3909
Prophylaxis exposure F.
No
Yes
63 (15.5)
343 (84.5)
20 (15.4)
110 (84.6)
83 (15.5)
453 (84.5)
0.003 1
0.67 (0.51-0.87)
0.0032*
Prophylaxis Adherence F.
Good
Fair
Poor
316 (92.1)
10 (2.9)
17 (5.0)
108 (98.2)
1 (0.9)
1 (0.9)
424 (93.6)
11 (2.4)
18 (4)
<0.0001 1
1.49 (0.79-2.79)
3.48 (2.12-5.71)
0.217
<0.0001*
ART F.
No
Yes
200 (49.3)
206 (50.7)
68 (52.3)
62 (47.7)
268 (50)
268 (50)
<0.0001 1
0.68 (0.56-0.83)
<0.0001*
B.= at base line
F.= at Follow up
*significant at α=5%
CHR=crude hazard rate
¥ d4T: Stavudine; 3TC: Lamivudine; NVP: Nevirapine; EFV: Efavirenz; AZT:Zidouvudine; TDF: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
Table 3: Bivariate cox proportional hazard model of the association between base line and follow up characteristics and any OI recurrence in among PLHIV in Debre Markos Hospital and Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia, between 25th March 2007 and 24th March, 2013.