Reference Geographic localization Population Program description Design Follow-up observation
Aggarwal and Duggal [31] Rural area of Lalpur, Ferozepur, Andheri; Haryana state; North India 403 males and 329 females Type and model: Community-based, educational and advice (group and individual) Content:
- Health education activities consisting of 6 RTI/STD camps (2 in each village) including vaginal examination and free medication, and one-on-one counseling and 20 interactive health education sessions (talks) (2 year duration).
- Use of health pamphlets (RTI and HIV/AIDS) in simple vernacular language.
QT 1 month and 2 years
Barss et al. [44] Al Ain and Abu Dhabi in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates 1398 females and 505 males (grade 12 high school students) Type and model: School-based, educational (group)
- Peer-led school presentations about HIV/AIDS (30-35 minutes, brief history of AIDS, prevalence, description of the disease, modes of transmission, treatment and prevention) and 3 short workshops on attitude and stigma (10 minutes).
QT Post-intervention
Bing et al. [50] Angola 568 Male soldiers Type and model: Work-based, educational (group)
- 5 day military focused interactive HIV prevention interventions including monthly booster sessions available after each intervention.
- Based on Fisher and Fisher’s Information, Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of behavior change.
QT 3 and 6 months
Blas et al. [54] Lima, Peru 808 gay and 588 non-gay MSM Type and model: Electronic-based, educational (individual)
- 5 minutes HIV-testing motivational videos framed within the Health Belief Model and customized for three audiences (s1-non gay, s-2 gay, s-3 trans)
- Offered through 7 gay websites which included a link to online survey, information about risk and benefits of participation, privacy policy information, frequently asked questions and a phone number for more information.
QT - RCT mean of 125.5 days
Bogart et al. [64] Los Angeles County, California, 121 HIV-positive clients, 87% male Type and model: non-randomized evaluation, in multivariate models
-a non-randomized evaluation examining relationships of TA (treatment advocacy) participation to adherence, care engagement, social services utilization, unmet needs, patient self-advocacy, and adherence self-efficacy among 121 HIV-positive clients (36 in TA, 85 not in TA; 87% male)
-Participants completed 1-hour interviews at baseline, and at 3- and 6-month
-TA participants (vs. non-TA participants) showed higher electronically monitored and self-reported adherence
QL, QT 3- and 6-month follow-up
Bowen et al. [55] Wyoming and Texas, USA 90 MSM Type and Model: Electronic-Based, educational and advice (individual)
- Internet-delivered HIV risk-reduction intervention modules (conversation with HIV + and – men, interactive graphics and activities)
- 2 modules of 20 minutes (HIV testing, living with HIV, treatment issues and routes of infection, safer sex options, condom types and correct condom application)
QT - RCT 1 week
Boyer et al. [49] Western pacific aboard ships 584 young US marine males Type and model: Work-based, educational (group)
- Four 2-hours multicomponent interactive sessions facilitated by trained navy corpsmen and a 2-hour booster session. (information, motivation and behavioral skills models)
 QT 6 months
Butler et al. [26] 22 USA states 167 HIV+ ado and youth males with haemo-philia Type and model: Community-based, educational and advice (individual and group)
- Based on the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Intervention 1 (establish initial rapport and elicit input for future programming –individual), intervention 2 (social activity with a group session to develop a supportive peer group), intervention 3 (intensive weekend retreat and recreational activities with group sessions) and intervention 4 (facilitate continuing progress and relapse prevention- individual).
QT/QL Post-intervention and 6 months
Caron et al. [45] Quebec, Canada 698 junior and 306 senior high school students Type and model: School-based, educational (group)
- Protection Express Program (Peer-led) based on the Theories of Planned Behavior and Interpersonal Behavior and a teaching model based on Social Cognitive Theory. Content developed to affect attitude, perceived social norm, perceived behavioral control, personal normative belief, role belief and the belief underlying these main construct.
QT 2 weeks (T1), and 9 Months (T2)
Chernoff and Davison [43] California, USA 155 college students Type and model: College-based, educational and advice (group)
- 20 minutes self administered intervention using normative feedback about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors among college students. Selection of specific risk reduction goals by students to be implemented over a 30 day follow up period.
QT 30 days
Chesney et al. [42] San Francisco Bay Area, USA 149 gay men or bisexual males (MSM) Type and model: Clinical-based, educational and advice (group)
- 10 weekly training sessions in appraisal of stressful situations, problem focused and emotional focused coping, fit between stressful situations and coping strategies, and the use of social support; skill-building group activities (relaxation guidance, day-long retreat, take home exercises) and 6 maintenance sessions.
QT - RCT 3, 6, and 12 months
Coleman et al. [14] Philadelphia, USA 60 older HIV+ African American males Type and model: Community-based, educational (group and individual)
- 4 week (2 h/w) intervention to increase condom use (condom use activities; information on stigma, marginalization, side effect of drug therapy and comorbidities; the checking video; SWAT negotiation; take home assignment with DVD).
QT Post-intervention and 3 months
Dilley et al. [38] San Francisco, USA 248 gay males (MSM) Type and model: Clinical-based; advice (individual)
- One face to face counseling session focusing on self-justification (1 hour) – introduction, recent history, critical examination and closure.
QT -RCT 6 and 12 months
Exner et al. [39] Ibadan, Nigeria 281 males Type and model: Clinical-based, educational and advice (group)
- Two 5 hour workshops, with a monthly 2 hour check-in session (didactic and interactive teaching, small group discussion, etc.). Modules: HIV stigma, knowledge, prevention, risk reduction strategies, sexual negotiation and gender based violence. Sessions: emphasis on communication, assertiveness and negotiation skills.
QT 3 months
Harding et al. [9] London, UK 50 gay males Type and model: Community based, educational (group)
- «SMsex: an introduction to the sm scene»: 25 group members meet for four sessions of 7 hours (assumption and knowledge, practical tools, risk taking, fantasy, limits and boundaries).
QT - RCT 8 and 20 weeks
Hoff et al. [24] New-York City and San Francisco, USA 811 HIV+ gay and bisexual males Type and model: Community-based, educational and advice (group)
- The Seropositive Urban Men’s Intervention Trial (SUMIT): behavioral intervention including six peer led sessions (3 h). (sexual and romantic relationships, HIV and STD transmission, drug and alcohol use, assumptions about HIV status of partners, HIV transmission responsibility and disclosure of HIV status)
QT - RCT 3 and 6 months
Jones et al. [15] Raleigh, Greensboro and Charlotte, North Carolina; USA 1190 black MSM Type and model: Community-based, educational (group)
- HIV behavioral intervention of 4 two hour sessions on topics like: local and state epidemiology of HIV/AIDS and STDs, facts and myths about HIV/AIDS and characteristic of an effective risk reduction conversation.
QT 4, 8 and 12 months
Kalichman et al. [28] Eastern and western cape region of South Africa 99 Males Type and model: Community-based, educational and advice (group)
- Based on the Social Cognitive Theory and the Social Constructionist Theory of Gender (five 3 h group sessions with 8-12 men). Includes elements of education, motivational enhancement to reduce HIV risk and sexual violence, HIV/AIDS destigmatization, and learning skills for avoiding violence and reducing sexual risks.
QT After 5th session
Kegeles et al. [32] All regions of the US; 31 states, plus the District of
Columbia and Puerto Rico
49 community-based organizations; population size: 30,000-11,000,000 Type and model: Community-based, Translating Research into Practice (TRIP) Study (a longitudinal project)
-Development of an intervention to help CBOs (community-based organizations) implement the MP (Mpowerment Project: a community-level, evidence-based HIV prevention intervention for young gay/bisexual men that is a combination HIV prevention approach) called the Mpowerment Project Technology Exchange System (MPTES).
-The MPTES consists of seven components (program manual, overview video, M-group Facilitator Guide, M-group training video, Training program, Technical assistance (TA) program, Web-based resources)
QL Up to 2 years
Koblin et al. [8] Boston, Chicago, Denver, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle; USA 4295 MSM Type and model: Community-based, educational and advice (individual)
-Intervention designed to address individual, interpersonal and situational related factors associated with risk taking among MSM. Ten core modules delivered at one-on-one counseling sessions (one module per session) within 4-6 months randomization. Maintenance sessions every 3 months until the end of the study.
QT - RCT Every 6 months (4 years)
Kubicek et al. [34] Los Angeles, CA, USA 526 YMSM (young MSM; ages 18-24) Type and model: Community-based, longitudinal study of an ethnically diversecohort
-Study about how YMSM use the Internet to find information related to sex, sexuality, and sexual partners. HYM (Healthy Young Men) participants completed an extensive 60 to 90 min survey every 6 months over the course of 2 years.
-Findings show how YMSM researchers and interventionists can most effectively reach YMSM through online methods.
QT and QL Every six months over the course of two years
Landolt et al. [65] Thailand 100 HIV-positive women and 100 HIV-positive men Type and model: Cross-sectional study; participants completed a questionnaire
-Study about the sexual life of HIV-positive heterosexual men and women in a stable relationship and on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Thailand.
-Sexual practices and options for contraception, as well as intention for conception and factors influencing it were studied.
QT N/A (None)
Lapinski et al. [21] Michigan, USA 72 HIV+ MSM Type and model: Community-based, educational and advice (group and individual)
-Individual level counseling condition (ILC): based on the Stage of Change Model and the AIDS Risk Reduction Model, counselors assed HIV risk and developed risks reduction plans; Group level sessions condition (GLS): 6 peer facilitated group level sessions based on the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Social Cognitive Theory and GLS and ILC arm condition: added appropriated medical and psychosocial referrals.
QT Post-intervention and 6 weeks
Leonard et al. [51] Kaolack, Senegal 260 males Type and model: Work-based; educational and advice (group)
- Peer education program (information on HIV and STD, condom distribution, referrals, etc).
QT 3 months
Mansergh et al. [22] Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco; USA 1686 substance using MSM Type and model: Community-based, educational and advice (group)
- 6 weekly 2 hour group sessions consisting of an intervention (cognitive behavioral techniques and skill building techniques including modeling and behavioral rehearsal) and twelve 45-55 min modules of the attention-control (20-30 min video and group discussion on MSM related issues such as relationships, spirituality and racism).
QT - RCT 3, 6 and 12 months
Morin et al. [23] USA 616 MSM HIV+ Type and model: Community-based, educational and advice (individual)
- Cognitive behavioral intervention, individually tailored sessions, 90 minutes individual counseling sessions grouped into 3 modules (stress coping and adjustment/safer behavior/healthy behavior) each consisting of 5 sessions.
QT 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 months
Mustanski et al. [35] USA (Midwest states) 329 MSM
(18- to 24-year-old)
Type and model:community-based mixed-methods; interviews, quantitative and qualitative analysis
-Describing Internet-related behaviors among young MSM that positively
and negatively impact their sexual health. Three areas of sexual health were explored: HIV/STI knowledge, sexual self-acceptance, and sexual risk behaviors.
-Use of the Internet to find HIV/AIDS information was very common.
-The findings present an optimistic picture about the role of the Internet in the development of sexual health among young MSM.
Ngongo et al. [66] Eastern and Southern Africa (Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia, and South Africa) 16 key staff members from the 10 RCs (Research Centers) Type and model: data collection by a designed survey tool
-To inform a standard approach to care and prevention services in its sponsored research, the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) conducted
a survey to systematically assess and document current practices at 10 HIV prevention research centers (RCs) in Eastern and Southern Africa.
-A collaborative process between IAVI and the RCs was undertaken to reach consensus on expected standards of care. A set of required and recommended services to be provided on-site or by referral was developed.
Njau et al. [36] Northern Tanzania (in rural settings) 91 participants (male and female) Type and model: Community-based, formative qualitative study, Purposive sampling, interviews and Focus group discussions (FGDs)
-The Government of Tanzania has recognized a door-to-door recruitment approach as a key strategy for universal HIV testing. Findings in this study indicate that such an intervention is likely to be acceptable among couples and service providers, although concerns remain that might limit uptake.
Operario et al. [16] Oakland, CA, USA  36 African American MSMW Type and model: Community-based, educational and advice (group)
- 4 weekly 1 h counseling sessions (HIV prevention, interpersonal dynamics with male and female partners and motivations of sexual episodes)
- Based on Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model of HIV Behavior Change and The AIDS Reduction model.
QT 3 months
Parsons et al. [30] Oklahoma, USA 255 HIV+ males with haemophilia and 158 females Type and model: Community-based, educational and advice (Individual and group)
- 3 general communication skills modules, at least one stage based activity for safer sex behaviors and at least one stage-based activity for communication about safer sex behaviors.
QT 15 months
Peacock et al. [27] Johannes-burg, South Africa 139 Males Type and model: Community-based, educational (group)
- Men as partner workshops intervention: educational workshops; 4 to 5 days (35 hours of activities) on topics like gender and sexuality, violence, HIV prevention, etc.
QT/QL 3 to 4 months
Philips et al. [4] British Columbia,
Type and model: A commentary article that introduces a community-oriented public health HIV prevention plan
-A group of experts criticize the current population-based public health approaches for HIV prevention in North America. They propose a acommunity-oriented public health approach for HIV prevention with a substantial attention to sexual minorities (including MSM) as the at risk population.
Picciano [57] Seattle, USA 89 MSM Type and model: Electronic-based, educational and advice (individual)
- 90-120 min counseling session using a motivational interviewing style.
QT - RCT 6 and 7 weeks
Puccio et al. [58] Los Angeles, USA 8 HIV+ Young males Type and model: Electronic-based, cell phone reminders (individual)
- Cell phone reminders to improve HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) adherence via a free cell phone.
- Participants received phone calls from an adolescent medicine research team for 12 weeks (first 4 weeks calls occurred on a daily basis, weeks 5 through 8 calls were only made Monday through Friday, weeks 9 through 12 calls occurred on Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday).
QT/QL 4 weeks intervals and post-intervention
(24 weeks)
Read et al. [56] Los Angeles, USA 110 MSM Type and model: Electronic based, educational and advice (individual)
- Counseling session: one-on-one AIDS counseling administered by a trained, professional HIV counselor after a negative AIDS test. (review of safer sex behavior, teaching behavioral and problem-solving skills for managing cognitions and behavior when dealing with risky situations)
- Video: interactive virtual environment designed to simulate the emotional, interpersonal, and contextual narrative of an actual sexual encounter while challenging and changing MSM’s more automatic patterns of risky responses (peer-coach).
QT Post-intervention
Rotheram-Borus et al. [41] Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Miami, USA  310 HIV+ youths Type and model: Clinical-based, educational and advice (group)
Content: Twenty three 2 h sessions based on The Social Action Model
- Stay Healthy intervention; a 12 session module that focuses on coping, implementation of daily healthy routines, issues of disclosure and participating in health care decisions.
- Act safe (11 sessions); enhance altruistic motivation to reduce transmission acts.
QT 9 and 15 months
Saberi et al. [37] California (San Francisco Bay Area), USA 328 men (MSM) (164 couples) Type and model: a mixed-methods study, including qualitative sub-study
-They found that among 328 men,62% had heard about PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis), but those at greatest risk may not be receptive of PrEP. Those who engage in moderate risk express more interest in PrEP
-Results indicate a need for further education of MSM communities and the need to determine appropriate populations in which PrEP can have the highest impact.
QT, QL  
Siegel et al. [46] Rochester, NY; USA 4001 middle and high school students Type and model: School-based, educational (group)
- RAPP intervention is a 10 or 12 consecutive health class sessions (2 or 3 sessions per week) delivered for 2 to 7 weeks; based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (in depth discussion and skills based activities).
QT +-41.2 weeks
Sikkema et al. [36] New York City, USA 65 men (newly HIV-diagnosed MSM) Type and model:a collaborative, community-based approach; intervention development and feasibility study (pilot intervention trial)
-The primary objective of this study was, in partnership with a large nonprofit community health center, to develop, pilot test, and assess the potential effectiveness of a theoretically based brief risk reduction intervention to reduce HIV transmission risk among newly diagnosed MSM.
-The intervention comprised three 60-minuteindividual sessions.
-Many individuals in the study reduced risk behavior immediately postdiagnosis.
QL 3-month, and 6-month follow-up
Somerville et al. [18] California, USA 766 young Latino migrants (MSM) Type and model: Community-based, educational (group)
- Modules on basic HIV information, communication, learning when to provide information and when to provide referrals for professional assistance and STI.
QT Post-intervention
Toro-Alfonso et al. [19] Puerto Rico 587 Latino gay MSM Type and model: Community-based, educational (group)
- 15 hours (3 hours small group discussion and four sessions workshops), peer-led issues of intimacy, relationships, drug abuse, sexual behavior, HIV and other STDs, and health perceptions.
QT Post-intervention
Ugarte Guevara et al. [33] León, Nicaragua 119 males (MSM) Type and model: mixed methods investigation, using a sequential triangulation design in which qualitative in-depth interviews were followed by a quantitative survey.
Fifteen participants (MSM) recruited by purposive sampling completed an in-depth interview that was then thematically analyzed. An additional 104 participants (MSM) were surveyed by means of an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The study was conducted from September 2008 to May2009.
-Findings demonstrate a satisfactory understanding of HIV transmission among MSM population.
Mixed (Intervews and Questionnaires) N/A
Van der Borght et al. [52] Congo, Rwanda, Brundi and Nigeria females and males Type and model: Work-based, educational and testing (individual and couple)
Content: Comprehensive HIV workplace program (i.e. antiretroviral treatment, peer-groups, special events, etc.)
QT Post-intervention
Walker et al. [47] Morelos, Mexico 10954 1st year high school students Type and model: School-based, educational (group)
- HIV education course with condom promotion condition (15 w/30 h) and the same course plus emergency contraceptive and access condition (16 w/32 h) (life skills teaching and UN program on HIV and AIDS).
QT -RCT Post-intervention and one year
Wiktor et al. [40] Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire 559 males and females Type and model: Clinical-based; educational, advice and testing (individual and group)
- HIV counseling sessions (10-15 minutes) – HIV transmission, knowledge and prevention; misconceptions and reinforce correct responses.
QT Post-intervention and 4 months
Wilton et al. [17] New-York, USA 338 black MSM Type and model: Community based, educational and advice (group)
- 3 MV: 5 sessions intervention (behavioral and social determinants of HIV/STD risks) based on the Social Cognitive Theory, The Behavioral Skills Acquisition Model, The Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change and The Decisional Balance Model.
QT - RCT 3 and 6 months
Wolitski et al. [25] California, Mississippi, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin; USA 522 young incarcerated males Type and model: Community-based (prison), educational and advice (individual)
Content: included prevention case management and motivational interviewing and harm reduction
- Single session intervention: 60-90 minutes individual session based on a brief HIV assessment and risk reduction planning intervention.
- Enhanced intervention: 2 schedule individual sessions before (60-90 minutes) release and 4 after release (30-60 minutes).
QT 1, 12 and 24 weeks
Wolitski et al. [25] New-York City and San Francisco; USA 811 gay and bisexual HIV+ males Type and model: Community-based, educational and advice (group)
- Six peer-led sessions (3 h) that addresses sexual and romantic relationships, HIV transmission, drug and alcohol use, assumptions about HIV status of sex partners, disclosure of HIV status and mental health.
QT - RCT 3 and 6 months
Zhang et al. [20] Anhui, China 218 MSM Type and model: Community-based, educational and advice (group)
- Based on AIDS Risk Reduction Model (4/1.5 h sessions with activities), sessions included: behavioral labeling and evaluating individual high risk behaviors, developing individualized plans to make commitment to change high risk behaviors, emphasized taking actions to change high risk behaviors.
QT 3 months
QT: Studies using a quantitative design; QL: Studies using a qualtitative design; RCT: Randomized controlled trials; MSM: Men who have sex with men
Table 1: Preventive interventions overview and descriptive findings.
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