Total Sample Barebacker Identification  
      Yes (n = 88) No (n = 798)  
  n (%) n (%) n (%) p-value
Mean Age (SD) 35 (11) 39 (12) 36 (12) 0.013
Education             <0.001
  High school graduate or less 358 (40) 51 (58) 307 (38)  
  College graduate 528 (60) 37 (42) 491 (62)  
Race/Ethnicity             0.016
  White 734 (83) 81 (92) 653 (82)  
  Non-white 152 (17) 7 (8) 145 (18)  
Sexual identity             0.641
  Gay 872 (98) 86 (98) 786 (98)  
  Bisexual/other 14 (2) 2 (2) 12 (2)  
Sexual health              
  HIV positive 67 (8) 26 (30) 41 (5) <0.001
  STI (past 6 months) 40 (5) 6 (7) 34 (4) 0.275
Sexual risk behavior (past 6 months)              
  Insertive UAI 268 (30) 54 (61) 214 (27) <0.001
  Receptive UAI 220 (25) 54 (61) 166 (21) <0.001
  Serodiscordant insertive UAI 135 (15) 35 (40) 100 (13) <0.001
  Serodiscordant receptive UAI 119 (13) 36 (41) 83 (10) <0.001
  Drug use during sexual activities 242 (27) 43 (49) 199 (25) <0.001
  Had sex with partner first met online 557 (63) 58 (66) 499 (63) 0.534
Ever had casual sex at these venues              
  Sex club/bathhouse 339 (38) 44 (50) 295 (37) 0.017
  Park/Outdoor cruising location 282 (32) 48 (55) 234 (29) <0.001
  Leather, fetish, BDSM bar or event 97 (11) 19 (22) 78 (10) <0.001
Normative masculinity             0.002
  Low endorsement 291 (33) 21 (24) 270 (34)  
  Moderate endorsement 303 (34) 23 (26) 280 (35)  
  High endorsement 292 (33) 44 (50) 248 (31)  
Note. UAI = Unprotected anal intercourse
Table 1: Personal characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, and normative masculinity by barebacker identification (N = 886).