Characteristics Carotid ultrasound normal N=93 Carotid ultrasound abnormal N=82 p-value
N (%) N (%)
Age at the carotid ultrasound date (years)          
≤45 38 (75) 13 (25) <0.001
 46-55 36 (51) 34 (49)  
 ≥56 19 (35) 35 (65)  
Age at the carotid ultrasound date (years) 47 (42-53) 54 (49-59) <0.001
Age at antiretroviral therapy initiation date 43 (36-47) 47 (40-52) 0.005
Adherence in the first year of antiretroviral therapy          
<95% 9 (31) 20 (69) 0.007
 ≥95% 81 (59) 57 (41)  
Year of first antiretroviral therapy          
 1996-1999 21 (36) 37 (64) 0.005
 2000-2005 36 (65) 19 (35)  
 After 2006 36 (58) 26 (42)  
History of injection drug use          
 No 82 (57) 63 (43) 0.046
 Yes 5 (26) 14 (74)  
 Unknown 6 (55) 5 (45)  
First antiretroviral therapy regimen          
 NNRTI 23 (55) 19 (45) 0.005
 PI Single 11 (39) 17 (61)  
 Boosted PI 48 (67) 24 (33)  
 Other 11 (33) 22 (67)  
Any AIDS defining illnesses prior to ultrasound date          
 No 69 (53) 60 (47) 0.878
 Yes 24 (52) 22 (48)  
Years on antiretroviral therapy before carotid ultrasound date 5 (2-7) 7 (3-12) 0.008
Duration (years) of NNRTI exposure prior to ultrasound date 1.30 (0.21-2.94) 2.27 (1.12-5.22) 0.034
Duration (years) of PI exposure prior to ultrasound date 3.62 (1.96-5.18) 4.09 (1.43-5.73) 0.582
Nadir CD4 cell count (prior to ultrasound date) (cells/mm3) 140 (40-250) 140 (50-190) 0.795
CD4 value nearest to time of ultrasound (cells/mm3) 500 (410-620) 480 (380-600) 0.268
Peak plasma viral load (prior to ultrasound date) (copies/mL) 100010 (73900-100010) 100010 (76378-100010) 0.987
Plasma viral load nearest to time of ultrasound (copies/mL) 499 (499-499) 499 (499-499) 0.337
Note: For continuous variables, we presented the median and the 25th-75th percentiles.
Table 1a: Baseline characteristics of 175 male patients with human immunodeficiency virus who started antiretroviral therapy after 1996.
Goto home»