Anti-CCR5 antibody Ref Study Immunogen/Vector Adjuvant/Route/ Schedule Biological features Limits
Nt and ECL2 Abs [101] Preclinical, mice ECL2 (aa 168–182)
peptide emulsified in
mono-oleate/fatty acid
(L3) adjuvant
IN DNA priming
and booster IM
immunization
Serum and mucosal IgG and
IgA (intestinal, vaginal and
lung).
Long-lasting IgG and IgA
(12 months from boosting).
IN DNA prime+peptide
booster induced HIVblocking
antibodies and
B memory cells.
Human/simian CCR5
sequences.
Not conformed peptide.
ECL1 Abs [87] Preclinical, mice ECL1 conformed in
FHV capsid protein
Freund’s adjuvant
by IM and IN
administration
IgG and IgA.
Long lasting CCR5
downregulation on PBMC
and mucosal fluids.
Transcytosis inhibition.
Human ECL1 sequence.
Nt Abs [89] Preclinical,
rabbits
Nt (M1-S7)
conjugated with KHL.
Fusion with a Tspecific
peptide
from Tetanus
toxoid
Binding to N-term and
full CCR5.
HIV block in macrophages
in vitro.
.
Not conformed, human Nt
sequences.
Low proportion of CCR5-
specific antibodies
Nt-and ECL2-
CCR5
[94] Preclinical, rats Nt, cyclic ECL2 and
Nt+cyclic ECL2
Phage Qbeta-based
VLPs by IM or
aerosol route
Strong IgG and IgA in
serum
Aerosol boost induced
mucosal IgA
Macaque CCR5
sequences.
CCR5 Abs [106] Preclinical, mice Homologous, Nt,
ECL1, ECL2
sequences conformed
in FHV capsid
protein.
Alum best adjuvant
than Freund’s,
RIBI, Montanide.
IM priming +
mucosal IN
boosting best
schedule among 13
protocols
compared.
Murine CCR5 sequences.
Full tolerance break.
Serum and mucosal IgG and
IgA.
Long lasting CCR5
downregulation in PBMC
and mucosal fluids.
Mucosal IgA priming.
Transcytosis inhibition. No signs of autoimmunity.
Low IgA recovery from
mucosal fluids.
Table 3: Preclinical anti-CCR5 immunization studies in rodents.
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