Anti-CCR5 Vaccine Ref Study Immunogen/Vector Adjuvant//Route/ Schedule Biological features Limits
CCR5 auto-
Abs
[108] Preclinical,
macaques
SHIV challenge
High density Nt
peptides conjugated to
VLPs from BPV-L1
protein.
Homologous, non
conformed macCCR5
sequences were used.
9 IM inocula with
TiterMax Gold
adjuvant
Binding to native macCCR5
in vitro SHIV block.
Reduced viral loads and
time to clearance upon IV
infection with a weakly
pathogenic SHIV.
SHIV clearance correlated
with anti-CCR5 antibody
titer and avidity.
Abs titers were found to
decline over time but
responded to subsequent
boosts.
No vaccinated macaque
escaped challenge, albeit
most of them controlled it.
CCR5 Abs [110] Preclinical,
macaques
SHIV challenge
Cyclic ECL2
(Arg168-Tyr177+CyscDDR5)
conjugated to
MAP poly-lysin resin
Immunizations in
Complete (IP, 0,
1wk) and
Incomplete (SC, 6
wk) Freund’s
Binding to human and
macaque PBMCs.
In vitro block of laboratory
and primary isolates.
Reduction of viral load upon
challenge.
Infection was partly
controlled but not
prevented.
CCR5 Abs [111] Preclinical,
macaques
Vaginal SIV
challenges
Nt and cyclic ECL2
peptides in
bacteriophage Qss
VLPs
Homologous
macCCR5 sequences
were used.
.
4 IM priming
(Freund’s)
+ 3 vaginal
boosting
Viremia peak 30-fold lower
Undetectable SIV in 3/12
animals since 6 wk p.i. for
more than a year in serum,
lymph nodes and colon
biopsies.
Viral control due to humoral
but no to cell-mediated
immunity.
Vaginal secretions could
not be examined.
IgA were not evaluated.
High dose challenges
could have even masked
the real extent of
protection
Table 4: Preclinical, anti-CCR5 immunization studies with virus challenges.