(Men’s) Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Women’s Interagency HIV Study
  n=121 n=63
Recreational Drug Use Characteristic Drug Use Airflow Obstruction Moderate Diffusion Impairment Radiographic Emphysema Drug Use Airflow Obstruction Moderate Diffusion Impairment Radiographic Emphysema
  % OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) % OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Percentage of total visits reporting recent drug use c 56 1.41 (1.00-1.98) 1.04 (0.77-1.40) 1.07 (0.85-1.36) 31 1.19 (0.78-1.82) 1.17 (0.88-1.55) 1.07 (0.72-1.59)
Since last visit n (%)       n (%)      
Any drug 59 (48.8) 1.91 (0.65-5.62) 1.41 (0.49-4.08) 1.53 (0.66-3.53) 25 (39.7) 2.22 (0.45-10.9) 2.27 (0.79-6.49) 0.91 (0.22-3.78)
Any intravenous drug 1 (0.8) § § § 6 (9.5) 1.70 (0.17-17.1) 4.0 (0.67-23.8) 0.89 (0.09-8.65)
Marijuana 36 (29.8) 2.75 (0.94-8.03) 2.04 (0.70-5.98) 0.79 (0.30-2.06) 16 (25.4) 2.48 (0.49-12.5) 1.06 (0.33-3.43) 0.70 (0.15-3.22)
Crack 8 (6.7) § 0.92 (0.11-8.05) 2.95 (0.47-18.6) 9 (14.3) 1.00 (0.11-9.44) 20.8 (2.4-180.8) 1.52 (0.17-13.9)
Cocaine 13 (10.8) 1.21 (0.24-6.03) 0.51 (0.06-4.22) 2.54 (0.64-10.2) 1 (1.6) § § §
Heroin 1 (0.8) § § § 6 (9.5) 1.70 (0.17-17.1) 4.0 (0.67-23.8) 0.89 (0.09-8.65)
“Poppers” 25 (20.7) 1.33 (0.39-4.56) 0.87 (0.23-3.33) 1.41 (0.53-3.75) ---- ---- ---- ---
“Uppers” 6 (5.0) § 1.32 (0.14-12.1) 0.92 (0.16-5.31) ---- ---- ---- ---
Methamphetamine ---- ---- ---- --- 2 (3.2) § § §
Any lifetime use n (%)       n (%)      
Any intravenous drug 18 (14.9) 2.37 (0.65-8.62) 1.04 (0.21-5.19) 1.25 (0.41-3.84) 34 (54.0) 1.16 (0.24-5.65) 2.79 (0.94-8.27) 0.54 (0.12-2.41)
Marijuana 98 (81.7) § 1.67(0.35-7.93) 0.80 (0.28-2.30) 52 (82.5) 0.48(0.08-2.86) 0.41 (0.11-1.52) §
Crack 38 (60.3) 2.16 (0.40-11.6) 1.96 (0.47-8.22) 0.70 (0.23-2.13) ---- --- --- ---
Cocaine 76 (62.8) 1.61 (0.48-5.40) 2.44 (0.65-9.18) 1.52 (0.62-3.72) ---- ---- ---- ---
Crack, cocaine orheroin ---- ---- ---- --- 51 (80.9) 0.26 (0.05-1.34) 1.94 (0.47-8.03) 0.50 (0.06-4.47)
“Poppers” 86 (71.1) 1.90 (0.51-7.13) 0.47 (0.16-1.37) 1.63 (0.61-4.38) ---- ---- ---- ---
“Uppers” 47 (38.8) 1.38 (0.46-4.10) 1.01 (0.33-3.05) 0.80 (0.34-1.89) ---- ---- ---- ---
Methamphetamine ---- ---- ---- ---- 4 (6.4) § 0.56 (0.06-5.73) §
Table 2: HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus; AIDS: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; OR: Odds Ratio; CI: Confidence Interval; poppers: Amyl Nitrites; uppers: Stimulants, Including Methamphetamines. a: Airflow obstruction defined as a pre- or post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) <0.70; moderate diffusion impairment defined as diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) <60% predicted; radiographic emphysema defined as >1% of lung voxels < -950 Hounsfield units. b: Survey questions differ between MACS and WIHS. Unavailable data represented with “--“.c: Odds ratio represents the increase in odds of the primary outcome for each 20% increase in the percentage of total study visits reporting recent drug use. § No observations available for analysis
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