Allergen Modification Effects Remarks Reference
Lep d 2 Deletion of 2 cysteine molecules Significantly reduced IgE affinity Disrupted allergen conformation [23]
Par j 1/ Par j 2 Substituted 3 critical amino acids Reduced IgE affinity, induction of IgG blocking antibodies, stimulate T cell proliferation Efficacy tested with a dimer of the mutants [26]
Ric c 1/ Ric c 3 Alteration of glutamic acid residues in epitope Significant reduce in ability to induce mast cell degranulation   [3]
Pen a 1 Substituted 12 critical amino acids in 5 epitope regions Reduced mediators release in a humanized RBL assay Maximal release of mediators under high concentration of mutants [4]
Phl p 5 Single mimotope peptide of an IgE epitope Down-regulated inflammatory response, reduced Th2 cytokines No T cells involvement [31]
Table 1: Summary of different B cell epitope modification strategies and effects of modification for different allergens.
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