On immunological basis: unanimous
1) Type I: IgE-mediated reactions
a) Systemic
Anaphylactic shock
b) Gastrointestinal
Early-onset enteropathy
Nausea, colics, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain
Allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis (some forms)
c) Cutaneous
Atopic dermatitis, erythema
d) Respiratory
Wheezing, sneezing, cough, rhinorrhea
2) Type II: Cytotoxic reactions
CM-induced thrombocytopenia
Recurrent pneumonia (Heiner syndrome)
3) Type III: by immune complexes
Celiac disease
Colitis syndrome
Dermatitis herpetiformis
Serous otitis
Enterocolitic syndrome
Malabsorption syndrome
Pulmonary hemosiderosis
Sideropenic anemia sometimes with occult blood loss
4) Type IV: Cell-mediated hypersensitivity
Celiac disease
Dermatitis herpetiformis
Enterocolitic syndrome
Malabsorption syndrome
Pulmonary hemosiderosis
On nonimmunological basis: not unanimous
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Crohn's disease
Eosinophilic enteropathy
Gastroesophageal reflux
Infantile colitis
Recurrent periostitis
Recurring stomatitis
Tension-fatigue syndrome
Table 4: Clinical manifestations attributed to CMA on immunological and nonimmunological basis.
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