Exposure Agent or Process
Acids Glacial acetic, sulfuric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric acid
Alkali Ammonia, bleach, calcium oxide, sodium hydroxide, World  Trade Center dust, air bag emissions
Gases Chlorine, sulfur dioxide, mustard, ozone, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, nitrogen dioxide; dinitrogen tetroxide
Spraying Spraying of paints and coatings
Explosion Irritant gases, vapors and fume releases under pressure; uranium hexafluoride; World Trade Center disaster
Fire/pyrolysis Combustion and pyrolysis products of fires, burning paint fumes, pyrolysis products of  polyvinylchloride (PVC) meat wrapping film; smoke inhalation, Chlorofluorocarbons degradation, urea fumes
Confined spaces Epichlorhydrin, acrolein, floor sealant, metal coating remover, biocides, fumigating aerosol, cleaning aerosol sprays, mixture of drain cleaning agents
Environment & Workplace SO2  gas in a pyrite dust explosion; locomotive  and diesel exhaust; Dunsmuir Metam Sodium Spill; aerosols of metalworking fluids including aldehyde and formaldehyde; aluminum smelter workers exposed to pot-room fumes; metal processing plant and c chlorine gas exposures; bleachery workers with ozone and chlorine dioxide/SO2 gassings; chlorine gas “puffs” among pulp mill workers & chlorine gassing incidents; sodium persulfate; inorganic salts used as oxidizing agents in hair bleaches & hair-coloring preparation; shoe and leather workers exposed to the organic solvents ; workers exposed to SO2 from apricot sulfurization tunnel construction workers, cleaning and disinfecting workers in the food industry, chili pepper pickers, dust exposure in Norwegian smelters; 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate in dentists; synthetic leather workers exposed to organic solvents toluene, xylene and methyl ethyl ketone; eucalyptus; fragranced aerosol products; gases from liquid manure; steam system additive 2-diethylaminoethanolamine; irritant gas containing chromate at a chrome pellet manufacturing plant; bromochlorodifluoromethane and  bromotrifluoromethane.
Table 3: Causes of Irritant-Induced Asthma and RADS
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