Publication Study design Outcome
Nwaru et al.
(2010) [38]
Prospective birth cohort study.
Food intake questionnaire 8m pregnancy
sIgE serum samples children 5y
Increased vitamin D intake during pregnancy is negatively associated with the risk of food allergies at 5y age.
Vasallo et al.
(2010) [44]
Medical record review of all patients presenting to emergency departments for food-related acute allergic reactions between 2001-2006.  Seasonal fluctuations in UV-B irradiation and perhaps vitamin D are involved in involved in the pathogenesis of food allergy in children.
Mullins et al.
(2011) [45]
Comparison of food allergy rates by season of birth between children with FA diagnosis in a specialist referral clinic and population births controls. Reduced UV exposure/vitamin D status might be responsible for higher rates of food allergy of children born in autumn/winter
Keet et al.
(2012) [46]
Logistic regression comparison of fall or non fall birth between (i) food allergic and nonallergic subjects in NHANES, and (ii) food allergic children from Johns Hopkins and the general Maryland population Fall birth is associated with increased risk of food allergy, and this risk is greatest among those most likely to have seasonal variation in vitamin D during infancy and those at risk for skin barrier dysfunction, suggesting that vitamin D and the skin barrier may be implicated in seasonal associations with food allergy.
Mullins et al.
(2012) [47]
Neonatal serum 25(OH)D3 levels were compared between children with IgE-mediated peanut allergy and matched population births. Nonlinear relationship between neonatal 25(OH)D level and childhood peanut allergy: slightly higher levels were associated with lower risk than those in the reference group.
Jones et al.
(2012) [48]
Prospective birth cohort study.
Food intake questionnaire last trimester pregnancy.
Cord blood 25 (OH)D3 levels at delivery
No association between vitD status and allergen sensitization or presence of IgE-mediated food allergy.
Lower cord blood vitamin D status risk factor for the development of eczema in the 1st y
Weisse et al.
(2013) [34]
LINA cohort study
Maternal and cord blood 25 (OH)D3 levels during pregnancy & at birth.
Total IgE, sIgE for inhalants and food allergens at birth 1 &2 years.
Atopic outcomes (AD, FA) recorded as parental report of a doctor diagnosis
Higher maternal 25 (OH)D3 levels associated with a higher risk of sensitization to food allergens at 2y.
Cord blood 25 (OH)D3 levels were negatively associated with regulatory T cell numbers.
Table 1: Clinical studies on the role of vitamin D during pregnancy in food allergy [28].
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