Compound Species Inclusion Result Reference
Immunogen® Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchusmykiss) 0.2% Up-regulated immune related genes (lysozyme, TNFα), lower heat shock protein (Hsp70) gene expression, stimulated humeral immune response, elevated disease resistance Ahmadi et al. [80]
Brown algae beta glucanLaminariadigitata Rainbow trout 0.2% Increase in phagocytic activity in head kidney macrophages and a significant increase in the production of TNFα and IL-8 in gill tissue Morales-Lange et al. [89]
Yeast beta glucanSaccharomyces
Rainbow trout 0.2-0.4% Increased compliment and immunoglobulin Rozita et al. [91]
Yeast beta glucan (Aquate®) Atlantic salmon (Salmosalar) 0.2% Successfully induced inflammatory gene expression (interleukin-1β) in the head kidneys of fish infected with Lepeophtheirussalmonis; lice burdens were lower on fish
fedAquate® (19%)
Poley et al. [90]
Yeast-derived beta glucan Atlantic cod (Gadusmorhua) 0.1% Up-regulation of IL-1β after challenged with Vibrio anguillarum Lokesh et al. [88]
Beta glucan Pacific red snapper (Lutjanusperu) 0.1% Significantly increased growth, antioxidant activity, and digestive enzyme activity after exposure to lipopolysaccharides Guzman-Villanueva et al. [89]
Oyster mushroom beta glucanPleurotusostreatus Common carp Cyprinuscarpio 0.5-2.0% Significant shifts in white blood cell, lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil granulocytes-segments, as well as plasma concentrations of glucose, albumins, cholesterol, antrium and chlorides Dobsikova et al. [84]
MacroGard® Common carp 1% Differentiated the regulation of mRNA expression of claudin genes and prevented an intestinal inflammatory response post Aeromonashydrophil intubation Syakuri et al. [93]
MacroGard® Common carp 1-2% Fish fed diets containing 1% and 2% MacroGard® showed significant improvements in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio compared to fish fed both the control and the 0.1% MacroGard® containing diet Kuhlwein et al. [87]
Mushroom beta glucanGanodermalucidum and Coriolusversicolor Orange-spotted grouper Epinepheluscoioides 0.2% Enhanced the lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity, phagocytic activity and respiration burst; significantly enhanced the protection of grouper against Vibrio alginolyticus up to 16% compared to control group Chang et al. [82]
Macrogard® Snakehead (Channastriata) 0.1% Significantly reduced mortalities after challenging with Aeromonashydrophila with significant improvement in red blood corpuscles, white blood corpuscles, pack cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum protein content in treated groups over the control Talpur et al. [94]
Table 2: Various forms of beta-glucan in functional feeds found to improve fish health and immunity for different farmed fish species.
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