Figure 2: Distinctive surface ornamentation of piscine diplomonads, allowing identification to the species level. Anterior-lateral view of Spironucleus salmonis showing emergence of anterior flagella and unadorned surface (a). Ventral or dorsal view of S. vortens posterior end, with counter-crossing of right peripheral ridges around exits of recurrent flagella. Presence of papillae is also of diagnostic value (b). Lateral view of S. torosa which has ring-shaped swellings (tori) surrounding the exits of recurrent flagella (c). Oblique view of S. barkhanus recurrent flagella surrounded by crescent shaped ridges (barkhans), this is also found in the the morphologically indistinguishable S. salmonicida. Abbreviations: (af) anterior flagella; (cb) crescent-shaped ridge (barkhan); (de) depression; (o) opening of flagellar pockets (cytostomal canals); (p) papilla (r) recurrent flagellum; (t) torus (scale bars = 1 μm). Adapted from Saghari-Fard et al. [66] with permission from Inter-Research (a), Poynton et al. [5] with permission from John Wiley & Sons Ltd (b), Sterud [29] with permission from American Society of Parasitologists (c) and Sterud et al. [6] with permission from Inter-Research (d).
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