Disagree No Opinion Agree
I am in favour of a complete ban on doping for athletes 5% 0% 95%
I had already heard of gene doping before receiving this questionnaire 23% 0% 77%
I believe gene doping is already in use amongst elite athletes 21% 29% 50%
Gene doping is a health risk for athletes 17% 35% 48%
Given good coaching, gene doping can be medically sound for elite athletes 60% 16% 24%
Doing top sport in itself entails more risks than medically assisted use of gene doping 53% 25% 22%
Pressure from the environment is an important reason why elite athletes would use gene doping 25% 4% 71%
Career opportunities are an important reason for elite athletes to use gene doping 11% 3% 87%
Elite athletes are role models for other athletes with regard to the use of gene doping 17% 7% 76%
The use of gene doping amongst elite athletes inspires young people to transgress rules of society 36% 12% 52%
Genetic research as part of a dope test is an extreme breach of the privacy of an elite athlete 83% 4% 13%
The selection of young children based on their genetic disposition for sporting achievement can be defended in the policy of top sport 58% 10% 32%
The use of gene doping reduces the sportive merit of an elite athlete 6% 5% 89%
The genetic manipulation of unborn children for sporting achievements can be defended 95% 3% 2%
Gene doping is a threat to fair play in sports 3% 4% 93%
Because of individual differences it is fair to allow gene doping amongst elite athletes 96% 1% 3%
Because of differences in training facilities it is fair to allow gene doping amongst elite athletes 99% 0% 1%
Gene doping will radically change the character of top sport 12% 13% 75%
By using gene doping elite athletes suggest that money and fame are more important than effort and dedication 18% 11% 71%
Top sport is about the ‘altius, citius, fortius’ principle (higher, faster, stronger) and gene doping is part of that 84% 8% 8%
By allowing gene doping we shall be measuring technological achievements rather than human achievements 5% 11% 84%
Every human being has the right to be born with unaltered genes 1% 8% 91%
A society can prohibit something (hence also gene doping) by means of laws and rules. 2% 1% 97%
A elite athlete can be forbidden to use gene doping because this encourages others to also use it 5% 7% 88%
A elite athlete can be forbidden to use gene doping because this harms his or her own health 11% 28% 61%
Elite athletes should be allowed to choose freely for gene doping, regardless of any restricting measure taken by sports authorities 92% 5% 3%
Each way of genetic intervention with unborn and under aged children should be forbidden because they should be allowed to choose for this as competent adults 18% 12% 70%
A genetic intervention to recover more quickly from an injury is therapeutic and hence the prohibition of gene doping does not apply 36% 32% 32%
Gene doping is in essence the same as other means of enhancement such as high altitude training or heavy training programmes 92% 4% 4%
Table 1: Frequencies for the attitudes towards gene doping (n = 75).
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