Figure 1: Biomarker indices of AD and oxidative stress in postmortem brains. Frontal lobe aqueous homogenates from subjects with Braak Stage (B) 0-1 (controls), B3-4 (moderate AD), or B6 (late AD) pathology (N=8/group) were used to measure (A) pTau, (B) amyloid precursor protein (AβPP), (C) amyloid precursor protein-Abeta (AβPP-Aβ), (D) 4-hydroxynonenol (HNE), (E) 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and (F) advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) by direct binding ELISA. Immunoreactivity was detected with HRP-conjugated secondary antibody and Amplex Red soluble fluorophor. Fluorescence light units (FLU) were measured (Ex 579 nm/Em 595 nm) in a Spectromax M5, and results were normalized to sample protein content. Results were analyzed by one-way repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Fisher tests.
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