Protein Function; substrates AD/AD mouse ref
Tau Microtubule-associated protein Hyperphosphorylated in AD; comprises neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) [38]
pTau-Thr212 Phosphorylated by DYRK1A, CDK5, GSK3B
Nr1, NR2A, NR2B Subunits of the NMDAR ionotropic glutamate receptor; involved in synaptic plasticity and memory Hyperactivated in AD. No change in Tg2576 hippocampus [11,39]
GSK3B Kinase; Tau Increased pGSK3B-tyr216 in AD; co-localizes with NFT [40]
pGSK3B-Ser9 Phosphorylation inhibits activity
pGSK3B-Tyr216 Phosphorylation activates
FYN Tyr kinase; Tau-tyr18; same site as PP2A; complexes with Tau, NR2B, PSD95 Increased in AD; knockdown in 3xTg-AD mice increases Aβ & L/M deficits [41-44]
pSRC-Tyr416 pNR2B-Tyr1472  
CDK5 Ser-Thr kinase; Tau; inhibit SRC activity   [45-47]
P35/25 Activates CDK5; Increased Aβ [48-49]
PP2A-A Phosphatase (regulatory subunit); Tau; same site as FYN Expression & activity decreased in AD [50-52]
CANA Ca++-calmodulin dependent protein phosphatase (catalytic subunit); Tau, NR1, NR2B Increased levels in nucleus in AD brain; inhibition rescues L/M and LTD in Tg2576 [53-55]
IL1B Cytokine; stimulates astrocyte proliferation Increased in AD, DS; inhibition in 3xTg-AD mice rescues L/M deficits, decreases activity of CDK5 & GSK3B, and decreases levels of pTau & S100B [14,56]
ERBB4 Neuregulin 1 receptor; cleaved by γ-secretase; c-terminal transcription factor Increased in AD & APP/PSEN1 AD mice; protects AD mice from APP C-terminal peptide toxicity [57,58]
NUMB Scaffold protein involved in endocytosis; binds γ-secretase cleaved APP & NOTCH intracellular domains; inhibits Notch signaling; 4 protein isoforms differentially regulate APP processing & trafficking Altered isoform proportions in AD and 3xTg-AD mice increase Aβ production [59-62]
pNUMB-Ser276 Phosphorylated by aPCK & CAMKI; inhibits function in endocytosis [63]
nNOS Nitric oxide synthase Decreased activity in AD contributes to cerebral amyloid angiopathy; increased levels in APP double mutant rescue L/M [64,65]
SNCA Presynaptic protein; component of amyloid  plaques in AD Increased in AD; decreased in cortex of DS model Ts65Dn [66]
CASP3 Pro-apoptotic cysteine-aspartic acid protease; cleaves & activates calcineurin; cleaves APP Increased activity in Tg2576; activates calcineurin; inhibition rescues LTD and partially rescues L/M [39]
Table 1: Non-HSA21 protein abnormalities in AD and AD mouse models. 3xTg-AD, triple transgenic AD model expressing mutated forms of APP, Tau and PSEN1; Tg2576, transgenic mouse expressing the Swedish APP mutation; APP/PSEN1 AD mice, double transgenic expressing APP plus PSEN1 mutations. L/M, learning/memory; LTD, long term depression.
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